Saturday, 6 January 2018

Herbal Therapy: Green tea and Its Bioactive Polyphenols in Ameliorated Risk Human Immunodeficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1) Infection

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Green and black tea may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reduced risk of HIV 1 infection, some scientists suggested.

Green tea, a precious drink processes numbers of health benefit known to almost everyone in Asia and Western world. However, as yin in nature herbal medicine or food, long term injection of large amounts may obstruct the balance of yin-yang, induced "yin excessive syndrome" or "yang vacuity syndrome" including weaken immunity and painful case of GERD,... according to traditional Chinese medicine's Yin-Yang theory.

Human immunodeficiency virus -1 (HIV-1) is one of  2 types of HIV precipitated of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), transmitted through direct contact with HIV-infected body fluids, including blood, semen, and genital secretions,....

According to statistic, approximately 36.7 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS in 2016, including, 2.1 million of children less than 15 years of age.

According to the investigation of Theaflavins, the major components of tea polyphenols extracted from brewed black tea and green tea inhibited inhibited HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41 which is a transmembrane protein with function in embedded with outer coat of HIV to enter and infected host cells.

However, due to the unstable and purified of the individual theaflavins, natural preparation containing 90% of theaflavins (TFmix) in most study was used to experiment of its effect against HIV-1 microbide for preventing HIV sexual transmission.

In vitro using p24 production and luciferase assays, TFmix exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity on lab-adapted and primary HIV-1 strains with IC(50), the concentration of an application that gives half-maximal response in dose of less than 1.20 μM, through targeting the gp41 in inhibited virus-host membrane fusion during infection mediated by the formation of six helix bundle (6HB). 

In other words, theaflavins administration was found to initiate potent anti-HIV-1 activity by targeting the viral entry step through the disruption of gp41 6-HB core structure,

Further more, application of  theaflavins (TFmix) also inhibited reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, an RNA-dependent DNA, which is the process in replication of RNA from a DNA template through polymerase (DNAP) enzyme in forming new copies of DNA, in the form of nucleic acid molecules, with the IC(50) about 8-fold higher of theaflavins (TFmix) concentration than that for inhibiting gp41 6-HB formation.

In peptide fragments, derived from prostatic acidic phosphatase secreted in large amounts into human semen to form amyloid fibrils plaques with function to induced viral infection (SEVI), through capturing the HIV virions and direct them to target cells into liver cell to initiated entry step, during sexual activity, injection of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited the expression of SEVI and revoked semen in mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection through precipitated viral degradation without induced healthy cell toxicity.

Further analysis of green tea EGCG activity using HIV-1 infectivity on human CD4+ T cells, at a physiologic concentration of 6μM, EGCG significantly inhibited HIV-1 p24 antigen production in expression of acute infection in both HIV-1 clinical isolates and laboratory-adapted subtypes B C, D, and G.

Particularly, EGCG-induced inhibition of HV-1 infectivity was not due to cytotoxicity, cell growth inhibition, nor apoptosis but blocking the HIV activity in attachment of HIV-1-gp120, a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope to the CD4 molecule in the entry point in initiated infectivity.
Dr. Christina L., the lead author concluded, "(by) preventing the attachment of HIV-1-gp120 to the CD4 molecule, EGCG inhibits HIV-1 infectivity. As this inhibition can be achieved at physiologic concentrations, the natural anti-HIV agent, EGCG, is a candidate as an alternative therapy in HIV-1 therapy".

The information findings suggested that green tea with abundant bioactive polyphenols Theaflavins including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may be considered as a function food to ameliorated risk of HIV 1 infection by blocking the complex process in initiation.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) The main green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection by Hauber I1, Hohenberg H, Holstermann B, Hunstein W, Hauber J.(PubMed)
(2) A natural theaflavins preparation inhibits HIV-1 infection by targeting the entry step: potential applications for preventing HIV-1 infection by Yang J1, Li L, Tan S, Jin H, Qiu J, Mao Q, Li R, Xia C, Jiang ZH, Jiang S, Liu S.(PubMed)
(3) Theaflavin derivatives in black tea and catechin derivatives in green tea inhibit HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41 by Liu S1, Lu H, Zhao Q, He Y, Niu J, Debnath AK, Wu S, Jiang S.(PubMed)
(4) Preclinical Development of the Green Tea Catechin, Epigallocatechin Gallate, as an HIV-1 Therapy by Christina L. Nance, Ph.D.,a Edward B. Siwak, Ph.D.,b and William T. Shearer, MD, Ph.Da(PMC)
(5) The HIV-1 gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat plays an essential role in membrane fusion by Sackett K1, Shai Y.(PubMed)

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