Wednesday, 3 January 2018

Food Therapy: Lentils(Pulses) in Ameliorated Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Kyle J. Norton

Lentils may have a substantial and positive effect in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lentil, a type of pulse of tiny legume that can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and fiber is a bushy annual plant of genus Lens the Fabaceaefamily, native to Middle East.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of disorders caused by heart dysfunction and abnormal blood vessels.

According to statistic from World Health Organization, approximately,17.7 million people died from CVDs in 2015, representing 31% of all deaths.

The evaluation of lectin activity in CVD reduction was found to facilitate various mechanisms through numbers of expression.

According to a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of dietary pulse (beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas) intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction, by reviewing literature published through Feb. 5, 2014, included RCTs of at least 3 weeks' duration that compared a diet emphasizing dietary pulse intake with an isocaloric diet, 26 studies met the criteria and guideline showed that a median dose of 130 g/d (about 1 serving daily) decreased significantly LDL cholelsesterol levels in compared to the control diets, without affecting the apolipoprotein B and non-HDL cholesterol levels.

Abnormal high levels of LDL cholelsesterol level is considered as one of major risk factor marker in the development of cardiovascular disease.

Further evaluation of the effect of dietary pulse fiber's low density lipoprotein implication of risk of CVD, indicated that antioxidant compound of bioactive polyphenolics inhibits the reactive oxygen species in induction oxidative stress in stimulated cholesterol accumulated in the large blood vessels in increased risk of heart disease through lipid per-oxidation.

Interestingly, the testing of low-GLoad foods effect in metabolic syndrome occurrence with 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months randomly assigned to 15 dietary exposures of varied Glycemic Index indicated that lentil diets with low GLoads (102, 202) displayed a significant effect in reduced onset and treatment of metabolic syndrome in compared to other food with higher glycemic index.

More specifically, the benefit from lentils in reduced risk of metabolic syndrome exceeded dietary factors of combination of macronutrient composition + total fiber or dietary caloric density in the legume.

Additionally, the experiment also found that lentil diet even reverse the progression of metabolic syndrome in the tested Nile rats.

Metabolic syndrome is a set of conditions of increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels which are considered as risk factors of cardiovascular disease.

Dr. Havemeier S, the lead author in the differentiation of Dietary guidance for pulses: the challenge and opportunity to be part of both the vegetable and protein food groups, said, "The last two revisions of the Dietary Guidelines saw the transformation from the MyPyramid "meat and beans group" to the MyPlate "protein foods group," a nutrient name rather than a food source". and "The 2015 Dietary Guidelines also came with a new area: sustainable diets. Encouraging the consumption of sustainable food sources, like pulses, is imperative to ensuring a secure, healthy food supply for the U.S. population over time and for future generations".

Moreover, the study to explore the association of legume intake (beans, chickpeas, lentils and so on), as part of a low-glycemic index diet, with the risk of cardiovascular events in the Iranian middle- and old-aged people contacted every 2 years for possible occurrence of CVD events in 7 years of follow-up, after considering other con founders showed that in compared to intake of legumes in different tertiles, risk of CVD was lower by 34% in tested subject of old-aged people, according to the returned food frequency questionnaire.

However,  frequency of consuming legumes exerted less significant effect in CVD events in the middle-aged people.

The findings suggested that intake of lentils frequently may have a potential effect in reduced risk of  cardiovascular disease.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Dietary guidance for pulses: the challenge and opportunity to be part of both the vegetable and protein food groups by Havemeier S1, Erickson J1, Slavin J1.(PubMed)
(2) Intake of legumes and the risk of cardiovascular disease: frailty modeling of a prospective cohort study in the Iranian middle-aged and older population by Nouri F1,2, Sarrafzadegan N1, Mohammadifard N3, Sadeghi M4, Mansourian M2.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Ha V, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Jayalath VH, Mirrahimi A, Agarwal A, Chiavaroli L, Mejia SB, Sacks FM, Di Buono M, Bernstein AM, Leiter LA, Kris-Etherton PM, Vuksan V, Bazinet RP, Josse RG, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ.(PubMed)
(4) Low glycemic load diets protect against metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the male Nile rat by Bolsinger J1, Landstrom M2, Pronczuk A3, Auerbach A4, Hayes KC5.(PubMed)

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