Saturday, 27 January 2018

Food Therapy: Eggplant in Ameliorated Risk and Treatment of Lung Cancer

Kyle J. Norton 

Eggplant may have a potential and substantial effect in reduced risk and treatment of lung cancer, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deeply purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

Lung cancer is medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the issues of lung At the later stage, the cancerous cell may invade other healthy tissues and organs a distance away from the original site.

According to statistic, approximately 28,600 Canadians will be diagnosed with lung cancer represented 14% of all new cancer cases in 2017.

In the investigation of the eggplant bioactive phytochemical glycoalkaloids activity and risk of various types of malignant tumors, Dr. Friedman M found that derivatives of glycoalkaloids, α-solamargine and α-solasonine demonstrated a strong inhibited effect in the growth of the lung and other cancer cells in culture (in vitro) as well as tumor growth in vivo, involved some unknown signalling pathways.

More specifically, the investigation of solasodine, a naturally occurring aglycone of glycoalkaloid in eggplant (Solanum melongena) in human lung cancer cell line A549 showed that solasodine displays a significant effect in ameliorated cancer cell viability and initiated cell apoptosis through attenuating expression of mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 which were found to be elevated in patients with lung cancer in compared to healthy subjects and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN), a cell surface glycoprotein which plays an important role in stimulated the production of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Further differentiation, also indicated that the inhibitory property of solasodine by increased the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) not only reduces risk of RECK accelerated cancer cell proliferation but also exhibits initiation of irreversible growth cycle arrest through short hairpin of mRNA in suppression of the RECK gene.

Additionally, injection of solasodine promoted cancer cells death was also associated to the over expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), a glycoprotein found in several tissues of organisms with function in involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix as mention above and TIMP-2, a member of the TIMP gene family with function as a metastasis suppressor.

According to the immunoblotting assays, administration of solasodine is very effective in suppressing PI3K /Akt phosphorylation of lung cancer cell of in induction of cell proliferation.

PI3K /Akt phosphorylation plays critical roles in the regulation of many cellular processes including cell cycle, growth, apoptosis and signal transduction pathways.

Alterations in phosphorylation pathways result in serious outcomes in the form of diseases, especially cancer.

Finally, solasodine decreased expression of microRNA-21 which has been found to be higher in more advanced malignancies, in initiated early entry phase of cancer developing by stimulated production of  RECK in accelerated cancer cell proliferation, thus decreasing risk of cell invasion.

After taking into account of all con founders, Dr. Shen KH, the lead author said, "the findings demonstrate an attractive therapeutic potential for solasodine in lung cancer anti-metastatic therapy".

Taken together, eggplant with abundant phytochemicals may be considered as a functional food for attenuated risk and used combination with standard medicine for treatment of lung cancer.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Solasodine inhibits invasion of human lung cancer cell through downregulation of miR-21 and MMPs expression by Shen KH1, Hung JH2, Chang CW2, Weng YT2, Wu MJ2, Chen PS3.(PubMed)
(2) Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes by Friedman M1.(PubMed)

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