Tuesday, 2 January 2018

Food Therapy: The Hetapoprotective Activities of Eggplant and its Bioactive Total Phenolics and Flavonoids

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)

Eggplant, bioactive phytochemicals were found to process hetapoprotective activity against formation of liver diseases, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant with deeply purple color, is a species of S. melongena, belongs to the family Solanaceae, native to India.

Liver diseases are groups of liver disorders, including cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver. inflammation (hepatitis) from infectious (hepatitis B, hepatitis C) or non-infectious causes (chemical or autoimmune hepatitis) tumors and liver cancer.

According to statistic, among population of aged 45–64 years, the death rates of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in the United States increased by 31% (from 20.1 per 100,000 to 26.4) from 2000 to 2015.

Eggplant, bioactive total phenolic and flavonoid content in reduced risk and treatment of liver diseases were found to associate to numbers of implication through various mechanisms.

According to the evaluation of 25 male Wistar rats randomly divided into five groups, and adapted for 7 days before the experimental study, including negative and positive groups fed with aquadest, Group III−V given Solanum melongena fruit infusion containing 1.125 grams, 2.25 grams and 4.5 grams orally for 9 days, respectively, suggested that at day 11 after the 9th day injection of  8 mL/kgBW of 10% CCl4 in paraffin carried out to all rats, except for the negative group,
treatment of Solanum melongena fruit infusion groups display a significant improvement of reduced hepatocyte necrosis in compared to positive group.

Surprisingly, under the observation of Mann-Whitney test, Solanum melongena fruit infusion did not express a linear dependent to the doses injection through the comparison to the effect in negative group, group III, and group V (p<0.05), as well as insignificant difference was found between the positive group and group IV (p>0.05).

Liver examination also suggested that liver cells death were found more common in the positive group of 37.26% in compared to negative group with the fewest necrotic hepatocyte of 1.27%.

In reactive oxygen species perspective, application of CCl4 stimulated by cytochrome p450 with function involved toxic substances metabolism to initiate forming of free radicals trichloromethyl radical (CCl3 -) in binding with lipid to induce lipid peroxidation in facilitated liver tissue damage.

Moreover, in reaction with oxygen in the liver tissue, CCl4 also precipitated the production of trichloromethylperoxy radical (CCl3 O2 -) to cause necrotic hepatocyte in the periportal space of the liver.

Additional analysis also discovered that Solanum melongena fruit infusion demonstrated a significant antioxidant activities in decreased and prevented the formation of free radical oxidation, through the expression of flavonoids in inhibition of CCl3 in reaction with oxygen to induce covalent bonds with fat.

After taking into account of other con founders, Dr. Nabhan Komara. the lead author said, "Solanum melongena fruit infusion has hepatoprotective effects against acute hepatitis in rat model histopathologically".

Interestingly, in the evaluated total phenolic and flavonoid antioxidant activity and hepatoprotection against cytotoxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in human hepatoma cell lines HepG2, scientists showed that pretreatment of HepG2 cells with 50 and 100 μg/mL of chemical compounds significantly increased expressions of t-BuOOH-exposed HepG2 cells  to induced tumor cell apoptosis by 14.49 ± 1.14% to 44.95 ± 2.72%. without harming to the nearby healthy cells.

According to the experiment, application of total phenolic and flavonoid not only increased antioxidant activities in protect liver cell against damage caused by over facilitation of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in induction of ROS but also exhibited free radical cytotoxic effect to initiated cell death in HepG2 cell lines. 

Further more, the hepatoprotective activities on t-BuOOH-induced toxicity was attributed to total phenolic/flavonoid content at both 50 and 100 lg/mL and antioxidant activities at both 50 lg/mL and 100 lg/mL observed by two most common radical scavenging assays, namely, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical.

Tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH) is an organic compound used widely as a peroxide in a variety of oxidation processes.

Taken together, there is no doubt that eggplant and its btoactive total phenolic and flavonoid may have therapeutic effect in protected liver against infectious and non infectious agents and irregular growth causes of benign and malignant cancers through over expression of antioxidant activities in protected healthy cells and induction of ROS cytotoxicity to tumor cells.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of five eggplant varieties by Akanitapichat P1, Phraibung K, Nuchklang K, Prompitakkul S.(PubMed)
(2) Hepatoprotective Effect of Solanum melongena/Eggplant against Acute Hepatitis by Nabhan Komara, Herri S. Sastramihardja, Afiati Afiati(Althea medical Journal)

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