Wednesday, 10 January 2018

Food Therapy: Eggplant in Reduced Risk and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Kyle J. Norton 

Eggplant may have a potential and substantial effect in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deeply purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

Prostate cancer is medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the issues of prostate.  At the later stage, the cancerous cell may invade other healthy tissues and organs a distance away drom the original site.

According to statistic, approximately 11.6 percent of men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point during their lifetime.

In the investigation of the effect of glycoalkaloids are nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites found in numerous Solanaceous plants including eggplants and risk of cancer, reserachers found that eggplant glycoalkaloids derivatives α-solamargine and α-solasonine inhibited prostate cancer and various types of cancer through induction of cancer cell apoptosis, a genetically directed process of cell self-destruction that involves numerous biomarkers and signaling pathways.

In vitro and in vivo application of glycoalkaloids derivatives α-solamargine and α-solasonine expressed a significant effect in inhibition of tumor formation and growth in fish and mice and human prostate cancer cell lines.

In deed, in the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. administration of non toxic dose of α-solanine initiated cancer suppression and reduced the viability of the human cancer cell through significantly elevated epithelial marker E-cadherin gene expression in target mutated cell in induction of cell profileration and invasion and decreased mesenchymal marker vimentin expression in initiated cell metastasis.

Further differentiation, also suggested that , α-Solanine ameliorated cancer cell proliferation and tumor initiation through reduced mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) in stimulated cancer invasion and metastasis and increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) in suppression of prostate tumor progression and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 in the regulation of MMP activity, particular in induction of cancer cell over expression.

According to the observation of the Immunoblotting assays, injection of α-solanine is effective in suppressed phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) which plays an important role in modulated cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking involved cancer progression, Akt phosphorylates expression with primary functions is to promote cell growth and protein synthesis and The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway phosphorylates with function in the control of diverse cellular processes including such as proliferation, survival, differentiation and motility.

Moreover, α-solanine reduced levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in expression of cancer progression. Higher levels of miR-21 are correlated to more advanced malignancies and elevated tumor suppressor miR-138 expression in induced prostate cancer cells apoptosis through cell cycle arrest at G1/S transition.

Taken together, eggplant with abundant phytochemicals including glycoalkaloids derivatives α-solamargine and α-solasonine  may be considered as functional food in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Sources
(1) Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes by Friedman M1.(PubMed)
(2) α-Solanine inhibits invasion of human prostate cancer cell by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and MMPs expression by Shen KH1, Liao AC2, Hung JH3, Lee WJ4, Hu KC5, Lin PT6, Liao RF7, Chen PS8.(PubMed)

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