Wednesday, 31 January 2018

Food Therapy: Lentil Lectins in Optimization of Immune Function Against Pathogens

Kyle J. Norton

Lentil may have a profound and positiive effect in modulated immune response in acute phase of infection, some scientist suggested

Lentil is a type of pulse and  tiny legumes that can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and fiber, belongings genus Lens the Fabaceae family, native to Middle East.

Immune response is a natural reaction of immune system to protect our body against invasion of foreign substances.

In acute phase of infection, immune system initiated production of of proinflammatory Th1 cytokines in activated interleukin-12 (IL-12) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and other pro inflammatory factors such as TNF beta in response to detect, engulf and destroy pathogens and apoptotic cells through macrophages.

These activities played an important in induced apoptosis and reduced proliferation of bacteria or virus by attaching to the surface of the injure cells to initiation of alternation. however, over production of pro inflammatory expression may indeed cause substantial adverse effects in tissue destruction, and, in some cases, shock and death.

Type 1 T helper (Th1) in response to tissue damage and injure also activated macrophages which are responsible for cell-mediated immunity and phagocyte-dependent protective activity.

In the concerns of lectins adverse effecs may pose a potential threat to consumers due to their capacity to induce histamine release from basophils, after investigating over 16 common dietary produceds containing lectins researchers found that most plant lectins induce human basophils to produce interleukin 4 (IL-4) a anti inflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in stimulated secretion of T cells and IL-13 another cytokines works conjunction with IL-4 in promoted the expression of T helper 2 (Th2) responses and regulation of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis.

All these expressed a significant effect of dietary lectin in reduced over expression of pro inflammatory factors in immune system during acute phase of infection in induced further cell damage and death in the infectious site through secretion of anti inflammatory cytokines without decreasing the immune protective activities.

Truly, further examine also found that concanavalin A, lentil lectin, phytohemagglutinin, , triggered basophils to release IL-4 at concentrations of up to 1 ng/10(6) basophils which in turn orchestrated the release of IL-13 and histamine and levels of IL-4 and IL-13 release reached a maximum after 4-6 h and more than 18 h, after injection, , respectively.

These activities demonstrated a significant effect of lentil lectin in  inducing early IL-4 required to switch the immuneresponse towards a Th2 response and type I allergy, involving immunoglobulin E (IgE)–mediated release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils.

Indeed, the relative balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines appears crucial, as Th1 cells activated immune response during the early state of body injure or damage through evoking cell-mediated immunity and phagocyte-dependent inflammation, in stimulated production of several pro inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-beta which may also cause damage to the cell of the infectious region, leading to permanently additional damage to the tissues and Th2, under response to over expression of pro inflammatory cytokines stimulated the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13 of anti inimflammatory mytokines in evoked strong antibody responses (including those of the IgE class) and eosinophil accumulation, and inhibited several functions of phagocytic cells as indicated above.

Taken together, Lentil lectin may have a anti inflammatory effect in reduced over expression of pro inflammatory factors in initiation of symptoms of fever, headache, swelling, redness, loss of appetite, muscle stiffness through activating production of anti inflammatory mytokines.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Role of Th1 and Th2 Cytokines in Immune Response to Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria by Donato Torre,1,* Filippo Speranza,1 Massimo Giola,1 Alberto Matteelli,2 Roberto Tambini,1 andGilberto Biondi1(PMC)
(2) Dietary lectins can induce in vitro release of IL-4 and IL-13 from human basophils by Haas H1, Falcone FH, Schramm G, Haisch K, Gibbs BF, Klaucke J, Pöppelmann M, Becker WM, Gabius HJ, Schlaak M.(PubMed)
(3) T-cell subsets (Th1 versus Th2) by Romagnani S1(PubMed)

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