Thursday, 31 January 2019

Phytochemical Sulforaphane (Dithiolthiones) Kills Cervical Cancer Cells, According to Studies

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a bioactive compound isolated from cruciferous vegetables for the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer with no side effects, according to studies.

The cervix is an opening passage in the center of the ectocervix, that connects the uterus to the vagina in female reproductive organs. Cervix acts as a transition area for vaginal lining (squamous epithelium) change to uterus type (columnar epithelium) through the transitional area (squamous columnar epithelium) to host the development of the fetus.

Cervical cancer is a medical condition caused by irregular and disordered cell growth in the tissue of the cervix.

Most cases of cervical cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining the cervix. At the early stage, most patients do not experience any symptoms.

However, at the later stage, the overgrowth tumor may suppress the nearby blood vessels and nerve tissue, leading abnormal bleeding and severe abdominal pain.

At this stage, cancerous cells from cervix also can travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissue and organ, through lymph and blood circulation, causing the secondary metastasis.

Most common cervical metastasis includes the vagina, the uterus, the uterus, the tissue nearby lymph nodes in the pelvis, back of the abdomen tissue and ligaments around the cervix and uterus  

According to the statistic, cervical cancer is most often diagnosed between the ages of 35 and 44 and only 15% of cervical cancers are diagnosed in women over age 65.

The five years survival rate of invasive cervical cancer is 92% if diagnosed in the early stages.

What causes cervical cells DNA alternation? Researchers do not know. But researchers do know that immune system deficiency, smoking, the increase in age, long-term use of oral contraceptives and exposure to diethylstilbestrol are some of the prevalent risk factors associated with the onset of the disease.

Some researchers also suggested women who have several sexual partners or often change of sexual partners are at increased risk of infected by the Human papillomavirus (HPV), one of the major cause of cervical cancer.

Dr. Diane Cooper, the lead scientist in the cancer researcher in the examine the sexual activity in the risk of cervical cancer of among South African women wrote, "cervical cancer risk is associated with increased sexual activity. Initiatives to encourage later commencement of sex, and limiting the number of sexual partners would have a favorable impact on the risk of cancer of the cervix and other sexually transmitted infections".

These results clearly suggested that women who are sexually active and have a number of sexual partners should take extreme precautions to protect themselves against HPV infection.

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

On finding natural chemoprevention which holds great potential for cancer management as lower, clinically tolerable doses of individual agents for the treatment of cervical cancer, the cancer team at the Manipal University examined the effect of combination treatment of sulforaphane (SFN) and eugenol on HeLa cells.

Injection with variable dose combinations of SFN and eugenol showed a significant effect in inducing cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis at the lower and synergistic effect at higher sub-lethal doses to the cancer cells.

Futhermore, application of chemo drugs gemcitabine combined with the low- and high-dose of SFN combinations showed no significant cell death at lower doses compared to that of cell cytotoxicity in gemcitabine alone.

These results clearly suggested that SFN can only elevate the efficiency and lower the dose of certain chemo drugs which act on certain pathways in inducing cytotoxicity and cell death with decreasing side effects.

Additional examination of the effect of SFN and eugenol combinations researchers found that SFN significantly inhibits the expression of the proteins associated with cell proliferation and production of inflammatory cytokines.

Dr. Hussain A, the lead scientists in the final report wrote, "2 (or more) chemopreventive agents can act antagonistically or synergistically necessitating elucidation of possible mechanistic interactions for favorable and reliable outcomes of dietary components in the field of cancer prevention".

Compared to chemo drugs, injection of sulforaphane alone exerted a strong effect in inducing dose-dependent selective cytotoxicity in HeLa cells without causing harm to the to normal cells.

The finding emphasized that the bioactive compound processes a safe cytotoxicity profile compared to conventional chemo medicine.

Also, sulforaphane alone was found to expresse its efficacy through analysis of genes similar to that of SFN and eugenol combination.

In human cervical carcinoma HeLa and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, SFN inhibited the viability of both HeLa and HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis, observed by the formation of apoptotic bodies and the accumulation of the sub-G1 phase.

In-depth differentiation of SFN activity, researchers discovered that SFN not only induces cell death through the cancer cells cycle arrest but also activates the genes associated with the programming cell death and cell apoptosis by blocking the expression of cell proliferative proteins.

Taken altogether, sulforaphane SFN may be considered a chemo and natural medicine for the prevention and combined with certain primary medicine for the treatment of cervical cancer with a reduced side effect through lowering the dose of the applied chemo drug.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Concurrent sulforaphane and eugenol induces differential effects on human cervical cancer cells by Hussain A1, Priyani A, Sadrieh L, Brahmbhatt K, Ahmed M, Sharma C.(PubMed)
(2) Anti-carcinogenic effects of sulforaphane in association with its apoptosis-inducing and anti-inflammatory properties in human cervical cancer cells by Sharma C1, Sadrieh L, Priyani A, Ahmed M, Hassan AH, Hussain A.(PubNed)
(3) Induction of apoptosis by isothiocyanate sulforaphane in human cervical carcinoma HeLa and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells through activation of caspase-3 by Park SY1, Kim GY, Bae SJ, Yoo YH, Choi YH.(PubMed)
(4) Determinants of sexual activity and its relation to cervical cancer risk among South African Women by Diane Cooper,1 Margaret Hoffman,1 Henri Carrara,1 Lynn Rosenberg,2 Judy Kelly,2Ilse Stander,3 Lynnette Denny,4 Anna-Lise Williamson,5,6 and Samuel Shapiro. (PMC)

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