Scientists may have found an alkaloid in black pepper for the enhancement of the immune function with no side effects, according to studies.
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises the body's defense system against diseases.
Through the expression of the lines of defense, depending on the stage of pathogenic invasion, the innate immune response protects the body via a different set of interaction.
In the acute phase of infection, the macrophages in the immune system stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines to the site of the damage. The inflammatory cytokines not only play a critical role in stopping the stimuli from entering into the body but also speeds up the wound healing through growth factors.
The innate immune system also can destroy the damage cells such as cancer cell through the T cell activation of B cells which in turn stimulates the production of a protein associated with the production of antibody p53.
Some researchers suggested immune system also can kill cancer cells by reacting to activating cytokines (IFN-α/β, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21) produced by tumor cells or by other immune cells stimulated by tumor cells.
Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc.
With an aim to find a natural bioactive compound which processes the immune enhancing effect researchers assessed the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine, compared to that of the Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom)(PLE) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd.
According to the results from the tested assay, treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro.
However, immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titer antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice, compared to PLE.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine by Shenoy PA, Nipate SS, Sonpetkar JM, Salvi NC, Waghmare AB, Chaudhari PD.(PubMed)
(2) Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle by Shenoy PA, Nipate SS, Sonpetkar JM, Salvi NC, Waghmare AB, Chaudhari PD.(PubMed)
(3) Recognition of tumors by the innate immune system and natural killer cells by Assaf Marcus, Benjamin G. Gowen, Thornton W. Thompson, Alexandre Iannello, Michele Ardolino, Weiwen Deng, Lin Wang, Nataliya Shifrin, and David H. Raulet. (PMC)