Saturday, 19 January 2019

Phytochemical Piperine, the Potent Immune System Enhancer, According to Studies

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found an alkaloid in black pepper for the enhancement of the immune function with no side effects, according to studies.

The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises the body's defense system against diseases.

Through the expression of the lines of defense, depending on the stage of pathogenic invasion, the innate immune response protects the body via a different set of interaction.

In the acute phase of infection, the macrophages in the immune system stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines to the site of the damage. The inflammatory cytokines not only play a critical role in stopping the stimuli from entering into the body but also speeds up the wound healing through growth factors.

The innate immune system also can destroy the damage cells such as cancer cell through the T cell activation of B cells which in turn stimulates the production of a protein associated with the production of antibody p53.

Some researchers suggested immune system also can kill cancer cells by reacting to activating cytokines (IFN-α/β, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21) produced by tumor cells or by other immune cells stimulated by tumor cells.

Therefore, by modulating the immune responses to the needs of the body, the immune can keep us strong and diseases free.

Dr. Assaf Marcus and colleagues in the investigation of the study "Recognition of tumors by the innate immune system and natural killer cells" wrote, " First, cell-intrinsic mechanisms, like any other mechanism, are prone to failure, necessitating the existence of redundant systems. A second, unique, benefit of immune mechanisms of tumor suppression is that they can act in a paracrine manner. Secretion of cytokines such as IFN-γ, for example, can suppress the growth of neighboring tumor cells even if they do not upregulate immune-activating ligands".

And,  "Secretion of cytokines such as IFN-γ, for example, can suppress the growth of neighboring tumor cells".

These results clearly suggested by keeping your immune system strong, you can be free for infectious diseases and cancers.

Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc.

With an aim to find a natural bioactive compound which processes the immune enhancing effect researchers assessed the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine, compared to that of the Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom)(PLE) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd.

According to the results from the tested assay, treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro.

Futhermore, there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross-reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens.  

However, immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titer antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice, compared to PLE.

These results suggested that piperine stimulated the immune function in producing antigens against the lethal action of venom may be considered a potential for the development of antivenom formulation as an antidote against snake bites.

In embryonated fertile chicken eggs, researchers found that PLE was found to inhibit the venom-induced hemorrhage in the eggs. 

Combined administration of PLE and piperine significantly inhibited venom-induced lethality, hemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose-dependent manner.

LE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom-induced mast cell degranulation in rats by improving the immune responses to inflammatory and allergic reactions.

Before treatment, the injection of venom in mice showed reduced levels of catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and an increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels, the indication of inflammation.

Combined administration of both PLE and piperine also restored the antioxidant enzymes which were suppressed by the injection of venom in mice

These findings suggested that piperine not only protects our body against venom-induced hemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation but also inhibited an overreaction of the immune response in the stimulation of inflammation.

Moreover, piperine is effective compared to those of antivenom medicine.

Taken altogether, Piperine may be considered a bioactive compound for the treatment of venom caused by insect and poison animal bites, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine by Shenoy PA, Nipate SS, Sonpetkar JM, Salvi NC, Waghmare AB, Chaudhari PD.(PubMed)
(2) Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle by Shenoy PA, Nipate SS, Sonpetkar JM, Salvi NC, Waghmare AB, Chaudhari PD.(PubMed)
(3) Recognition of tumors by the innate immune system and natural killer cells by Assaf Marcus, Benjamin G. Gowen, Thornton W. Thompson, Alexandre Iannello, Michele Ardolino, Weiwen Deng, Lin Wang, Nataliya Shifrin, and David H. Raulet. (PMC)

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