Sunday, 6 January 2019

Herbal Andrographis The Natural and Potential Anti Oral Cancer Functional Plant

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a bioactive compound for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer with no side effects, according to studies.

Oral cancer is any malignant cell growth in the tissue located in the oral cavity, including the tissue of the lips or the tongue, cheek lining, floor of the mouth, gums (gingiva) and the roof of the mouth (palate).

Most cases of oral cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the oral cavity.

At stage 0 and 1, patients may not experience any symptoms as the cancer is localized in the outermost layer of tissue in the oral cavity or oropharynx less than 2 cm across.

However, as the cancer proliferation, at the advanced stage, the cancerous cells may travel a distance away from the oral cavity to infect other healthy tissue or organs, leading to secondary metastasis.

The liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and bones are common areas of oral cancer metastasis.

According to the statistic provided by the American Cancer Society, in the US, every year, approximately 51,000 people will get oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer causing the death of 10,000 patients.

Depending on the stage of cancer, the 5 years survival rate of early stages (1 and 0) is 84% and 64% if cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes.

Men, age, exposure to the Ultraviolet light, genetic preposition, tobacco use, alcohol and chew betel quid are the risk factors associated with the early onset of oral cancer.

Some researchers suggested that infected by the Human papillomaviruses is the most common cause of oropharyngeal cancers in the Western world found in 25 percent of patients.

The cases controlled study consisted of newly diagnosed patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.conducted by the McGill University in examining the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk of developing oral cancer showed that
* HPV DNA was detected in 19% of cases (14 out of 72), and 5% of controls (six out of 129).

* Among tonsil-related cancers (palatine tonsil and base of tongue) viral DNA was detected in 43% of cases (nine out of 21). 

* The OR for tonsil-related cancers for high-risk HPV types was 19.32.

The findings clearly provide evidence supporting a strong causal association between HPV infection and tonsil-related cancers. 

Andrographis paniculata is also known as Andrographis is a herbaceous plant, genus Andrographis, belonging to the family Acanthaceae, native to India and Sri Lanka.

The medical plant has been used in traditional Siddha and Ayurvedic in treating the common cold, flu, upper respiratory infections, infectious diseases, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, pneumonia, swollen lymph nodes, leprosy, bronchitis, sore throats, tuberculosis, chicken pox, etc.

Besides the main ingredient andrographolides, giving the plant a bitter taste, other ingredients of herbal Andrographis include diterpene lactones, neoandrographolide, andrographiside, 14-doexy-11, 12-didehydro andrographolide, etc., flavonoinds viz., oroxylin, wogonin, andrographidines A, B, C, D, E, F.

On finding a natural ingredient for the treatment of oral cancer with no side effects, researchers examined the effects of Andrographolide (Andro) isolated from an herbal plant, Andrographis paniculata.

Injection of Andro potently suppressed squamous cell carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) in the hamster model of cheek buccal pouch.

Andro reduced the genes associated with the activation of a protein (The nuclear factor NF-κB) that promotes cell proliferation and prevents cell apoptosis.

Furthermore, Andro suppressed transcription factors that attenuate neoplastic cell proliferation, promoted cancerous cell apoptosis, and mitigated tumor-induced angiogenesis.

Moreover, Andro retarded growth decreased proliferation, and promoted apoptosis of Tb cells, a human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line, in time- and dose-dependent manners.

Dr. Wang LJ, the lead scientist wrote, "Our results thus demonstrate that NF-κB activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of chemically induced squamous cell carcinoma". and By inhibition of aberrant NF-κB activation, Andro treats chemically induced oral squamous cell carcinogenesis".

In-depth analysis, Andro reduced the production of cytokines, chemokines and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway that involves the initiation of cancer cells.

And, Andro  inhibited cancer growth progression through a series of mechanisms, including inhibition of proteins that involved in cell growth, survival, development, and differentiation (such as Janus tyrosine kinases-signal transducers and activators of transcription, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and NF-κB signalling pathways) and cell division through activation of genes (p53 and p21) that are associated with tumor suppression.

These results clearly suggested Andro processes a strong effect in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis.

Taken altogether, herbal Andrographis processed a bioactive compound Andro may be considered a functional herb for the prevention and combined with primary therapy for the treatment of oral cancer with no side effects, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Andrographolide inhibits oral squamous cell carcinogenesis through NF-κB inactivation by Wang LJ, Zhou X, Wang W, Tang F, Qi CL, Yang X, Wu S, Lin YQ, Wang JT, Geng JG. (PubMed)
(2) Andrographolide and its analogues: versatile bioactive molecules for combating inflammation and cancer. by Lim JC, Chan TK, Ng DS, Sagineedu SR, Stanslas J, Wong WS(PubMed)
(3) Human papillomavirus infection and oral cancer: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada by Pintos J1, Black MJ, Sadeghi N, Ghadirian P, Zeitouni AG, Viscidi RP, Herrero R, Coutlée F, Franco EL. (PubMed)

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