Tuesday, 8 January 2019

Phytochemical Piperine, the Anti Metabolic Dysfunctions in Obese Patients

By Kyle J. Norton

Piperine may be considered a natural ingredient for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction in obese patients, some scientists suggested.

Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc.

Obesity is a medical condition characterized by excess body fat accumulated in the body over time.

While overweight is a condition of excess body weight relative to the height.

According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of the American population is either overweight or obese, a leading cause of metabolic dysfunction.

In other words, obesity is a metabolic disorder that predisposes patients to numerous diseases which not only cause a financial burden to the health care system but also increase the reduction of quality of life of the patients.

A metabolic dysfunction is caused either by the abnormal chemical reactions or disruption of chemical production in the body, altering the normal metabolic process.

Some researchers suggested that obesity's metabolic dysfunction may be a result of the liver or pancreas do not function properly due to fat accumulated in the organs.

There is no coincidence that the widespread of obesity over the past several decades are correlated to the promotion of the Western diet. Some researchers firmly suggested that diet rich in saturated and trans fat, red meat and processed foods and less in fruits and vegetables and whole grain is associated with the onset of obesity.

Dr. Bortolin RC, the lead scientists in the study to examine the metabolic parameters and gut microbiota changes in rat fed with the Western diet suggested: "diet, and not the obese state, was the major driving force behind gut microbiota changes" and "WD-fed rats developed obesity and obesity-related comorbidities independent of major alterations in gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis), whereas CAF-fed rats developed the greatest dysbiosis independent of obesity".

The result clearly stated that long-term intake of the Western diet induces metabolic syndrome and obesity. In other words, Obesity is not the cause of metabolic dysfunction.

On finding a natural ingredient or whole food for the prevention and treatment of widespread obesity-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the Western world, researchers examine the antimetabolic phytochemical Piperine isolated from the black pepper.

The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week trial included the assessment of the efficacy of metabolic changes versus a placebo.

In a total of 86 overweight subjects selected to the study, 41 patients (2/14 F/M; age 43.7 ± 8.5; BMI 30.3 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the supplemented group and 45 (29/16; age 40.7 ± 10.2; BMI 30.0 ± 2.7) to the control group.

At the end of 8 weeks, the supplement group showed a decrease of levels of a hormone produced by adipose cells that regulates energy balance by inhibiting hunger. High levels of leptin hormone is an indication of leptin resistance, found in the overweight and obese patients.

The levels of a hormone associated with the stimulated appetite increased food intake and promoted fat storage also decreased in the supplement group. Hormone ghrelin is found abundantly in the overweight and obese subjects.

Furthermore, the supplement group also showed a decrease of inflammation observed by the levels of C-reactive protein and an increased resting energy expenditure significantly, compared to placebo.

Compared to the decreased significantly levels of adiponectin in the placebo, the supplement group also showed an increase in the hormone protein that regulates glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.

These results suggested that the supplement group demonstrates a greater change of metabolic dysfunction compared to the placebo.

In other words, introducing piperine into the overweight and obese diet might be useful for the treatment of obesity-related inflammatory metabolic dysfunctions.

Additionally, in order to understand the effect of piperine on overweight and obese insulin resistance, researchers evaluated the bioactive chemical activity in mice feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 13 weeks.

Before injecting the mice with piperine, researchers found that mice fed with high-fat-diet display elevated plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose and hepatic lipid levels.

Administration of piperine (50 mg/kg body weight) only normalized the concentrations of insulin and glucose and hepatic lipid levels but also increased the levels of adiponectin and inhibited the protein which plays an important role in mediating lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling in the livers of mice.

In gene observation, piperine injection also increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) gene involved the regulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver, an indication of resist weight gain.

Dr. Choi S, the lead researcher suggested, piperine significantly decreased insulin resistance in mice fed with high-fat diet by increasing the levels of adiponectin and activating the pathway associated with fatty acid oxidation.

Taken altogether, piperine may be considered a bioactive compound for the protection of overweight and obese against the inflammatory and metabolic dysfunctions and weight gain without inducing any side effects

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Improvement in insulin resistance and favourable changes in plasma inflammatory adipokines after weight loss associated with two months' consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects by Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Perna S, Faliva M, Solerte SB, Fioravanti M, Klersy C, Cava E, Paolini M, Scavone L, Ceccarelli P, Castellaneta E, Savina C, Donini LM. (PubMed)
(2) Piperine reverses high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice by Choi S, Choi Y, Choi Y, Kim S, Jang J, Park T.(PubMed)
(3) Piperine, an active principle from Piper nigrum, modulates hormonal and apolipoprotein profiles in hyperlipidemic rats by Vijayakumar RS, Nalini N.(PubMed)
(4) A new animal diet based on human Western diet is a robust diet-induced obesity model: comparison to high-fat and cafeteria diets in term of metabolic and gut microbiota disruption by Bortolin RC1, Vargas AR1, Gasparotto J1, Chaves PR1, Schnorr CE1, Martinello KB2, Silveira AK1, Rabelo TK3, Gelain DP1, Moreira JCF. (PubMed)

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