Friday, 25 January 2019

Herbal Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, the Potential and Natural Anti Type 4 Hypersensitivity with No Side Effects, Scientists Find

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of type 4 hypersensitivity with no side effects, according to studies.

Type 4 allergy or type 4 hypersensitivity is often called delayed-type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes several days to develop.

In other words, instead of happening right the way as that of other types, type 4 hypersensitivity typically develops at least 48 hours after exposure to an antigen. 

The process that develops type 4 hypersensitivity involved the activation of the white blood cell cells in stimulating the release of cytokines and chemokines, and macrophages and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells associated with the body's adaptive immune response.

Compared to other types of allergy mediated by theantibodyy, type 4 allergy is a cell-mediated response.

Type 4 hypersensitivity can induce allergic contact dermatitis, occurred at the site where the antigen contacts the skin, then spread to other regions through contamination of the antigen.

Type 4 hypersensitivity is caused by atopic dermatitis, lung diseases associated with hypersensitivity, type 2 diabetes and inflammation of thyroid gland.

Treatment of type 4 hypersensitivity is totally depending on the severity of the disease. however, the most appropriate approach is to avoid the offending antigen.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is one of the species of Bearberry, in the genus Arctostaphylos, belonging to the family Ericaceae, native to northern North America, Asia, and Europe.

The herb has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic agent and to treat urinary problems, including bladder infections, kidney infection, kidney stone, pelvic pain, etc.

The herbal plant contains arbutin, ursolic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, some essential oil and resin, hydroquinones tannins, phenolic glycosides, and flavonoids.

In the concern of the widespread of Type IV hypersensitivity  caused by the contact dermatitis, researchers at the Kinki University examined the combined effect of arbutin isolated from the leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (Bearberry leaf) and indomethacin on Type IV allergic reaction-induced immuno-inflammation, carrageenin-induced edema, and adjuvant-induced arthritis.

Injection of arbutin at a dose of 50 mg/kg 24 h after the application rapidly decreased the swelling of type IV allergic sheep induced edema and adjuvant-induced arthritis by picryl chloride (PC-CD) compared to no reaction at the divided doses of 50 mg/kg.

Arbutin (p.o.) plus indomethacin (s.c.) exerted highly inhibitory effects on the swelling of PC-CD and sheep red cell delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) compared to that of indomethacin alone.

Furthermore, arbutin (p.o.) and indomethacin (s.c.) in a given portion were simultaneously administered, the inhibitory effect was more potent than that of indomethacin alone in both carrageenin-induced edema and adjuvant-induced arthritis.

The results clearly suggested that arbutin may increase the inhibitory action of indomethacin on PC-CD, SRBC-DTH against type 4 hypersensitivity.

Moreover, in the comparison of water extract (UW-ext) from the leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng (Bearberry leaf) on the antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activities of dexamethasone ointment, researchers found one or 2% UW-ext ointment did not inhibit the ear swelling by picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) and carrageenin-induced paw edema.

However, combined with dexamethasone ointment (0.005 or 0.025%), UW-ext augmented the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone ointment (0.005 or 0.025%) on these allergic and inflammatory models with no side effects.

These findings showed that not all parts of herbal Arctostaphylos uva-ursi processes anti-type 4 allergies, but combined with other therapy all parts augmented the significant anti-allergic and inflammatory activity with no side effects.

Additionally, the investigation of the antitype 4 allergies properties of the combined effect of 50% methanolic extract from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (bearberry leaf) and prednisolone also showed similar results as illustrated by the above 2 studies.

U-ext did not show an inhibitory effect on the swelling induced by PC-CD in divided doses of 100mg/kg immediately before and 16 h after the application of PC-CD, while it exhibited a significant therapeutic effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg or more once 24 h after the application.

Injection of the combination of U-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) simultaneously administered, exerted a greater inhibitory effect compared to that of prednisolone alone.

Researchers at the above studies wrote in the final report, "Bearberry leaf possesses a therapeutic effect against immuno-inflammation induced by PC-CD and also increases the inhibitory effect of prednisolone, and its active principle may be arbutin".

Taken altogether, herbal Herbal Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Bearberry) may be considered a functional remedy for the prevention and combined with primary medicines for the treatment of type 4 hypersensitivity with no side effects.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) [Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. V. Effect of water extract from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (bearberry leaf) on the antiallergic and antiinflammatory activities of dexamethasone ointment].[Article in Japanese] by Matsuda H, Nakamura S, Tanaka T, Kubo M.(PubMed)
(2) [Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. III. Combined effect of arbutin and indomethacin on immuno-inflammation].[Article in Japanese] by Matsuda H, Tanaka T, Kubo M.(PubMed)
(3) [Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. I. Combined effect of 50% methanolic extract from Arctostaphylosuva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (bearberry leaf) and prednisolone on immuno-inflammation].[Article in Japanese] by Kubo M, Ito M, Nakata H, Matsuda H.(PubMed)

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