Saturday, 5 January 2019

Phytochemical Allyl isothiocyanate, the Anti Prostate Cancer Bioactive Ingredient

By Kyle J. Norton

Phytochemicals, the natural chemical constituent, protect the plants against diseases and form their outer's color.

Bioactive compound Allyl isothiocyanate have a profound and potential effect in reducing risk and treatment of prostate cancer, some scientists suggested.

Allyl isothiocyanate is phytochemical containing sulfur in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in horseradish, mustard, wasabi, etc.

Prostate cancer is a condition in which the cells of the prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth in the prostate tissue.

Most cases of prostate cancer start in the cell on the surface of the inner lining of the prostate tissue. At this stage, patients do not experience any symptoms.

However, as the tumor continued to grow, in the short distance in the future, it will suppress the nearby healthy tissue and nerve cells, leading to localized symptoms and severe pain.

At the advanced stage, most primary prostate cancer cells can travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissue and organ, leading to secondary cancer metastasis.

According to the statistic, In the US, approximately 164,690 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed and  29,430 will die from prostate cancer in 2018.

In fact, more than 2.9 million men in the United States who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today.

Early diagnosis is the key to survival in prostate cancer. The 5-year survival rate for most men with local or regional prostate cancer is nearly 100%. Ninety-eight percent (98%) are alive after 10 years. 

Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams.

The causes of prostate cancer are unknown. However, certain risk factors, epidemiologically are associated with an increased risk of the disease, including the increase in age, ethnicity, family history, genetic preposition, and poor diet. 

Dr. Amir Bagheri, the lead author in the study "Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer: a factor analysis study in a sample of Iranian men" firmly suggested that a healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer (highest versus lowest tertile OR:0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.81;trend p: 0.025). An unhealthy dietary pattern was related to increased risk of prostate cancer(highest versus lowest tertile OR:3.4; 95% CI: 1.09-10.32; trend p: 0.037).

Therefore, by a chance of the diet pattern which contains high in fruits and vegetables and whole grain and few in saturated and trans fat, red meat and processed foods, a healthy man can substantially decrease the risk of prostate cancer
On finding a natural ingredient or whole food for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer, researchers evaluated the effects of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, against the growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.

Injection of 10 micromol AITC, three times per week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) beginning the day of tumor cell implantation significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 xenograft.

On the 26 days after tumor cell implantation, the average tumor volume in control mice (1025 +/- 205 mm3) was approximately 1.7-fold higher compared with AITC-treated mice. 

According to the histological analysis of tumors excised at the termination of the experiment,  revealed a statistically significant increase in a number of apoptotic bodies with a concomitant decrease in cells undergoing mitosis in the tumors of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. 

The Western blot analysis indicated the injection of  AITC inhibited the 70% of the levels of anti-apoptotic protein in the tumor lysate of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice.

The injection of AITC also exerted a statistically significant reduction in the expression of several proteins associated with the regulation of G2/M progression.

The finding suggested that AITC administration inhibits the growth of PC-3 xenografts in vivo by inducing apoptosis and reducing mitotic activity.

Futhermore, in order to understand the effect of dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) in the protection against chemically induced cancers in laboratory animals, researchers examined the allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) anti-cancer activity in the cultured PC-3 (androgen-independent) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) human prostate cancer cell.

Application of AITC inhibited all the tested cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of approximately 15-17 micro M.without affecting the normal prostate cancer cells.

The inhibition of the proliferation of PC-3 as well as LNCaP cells in the presence of AITC is correlated with accumulation of cells in G(2)/M phase and induction of apoptosis. 

At 24 h treatment of PC-3 and LNCaP cells with 20 micro M, AITC scored a similar effect as that of the previous study by causing a significant decrease in the levels of proteins that regulate G(2)/M progression, and the levels of anti-apoptotic protein.
Taken altogether, Allyl isothiocyanate may be considered a dietary source for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer with no side effects.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits the growth of PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo by Srivastava SK1, Xiao D, Lew KL, Hershberger P, Kokkinakis DM, Johnson CS, Trump DL, Singh SV. (PubMed)
(2) Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by causing G2/M arrest and inducing apoptosis by Xiao D1, Srivastava SK, Lew KL, Zeng Y, Hershberger P, Johnson CS, Trump DL, Singh SV. (PubMed)
(3) Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer: a factor analysis study in a sample of Iranian men by Amir Bagheri, Seyed Mostafa Nachvak, Mansour Rezaei, 3 Mozhgan Moravridzade, Mahmoudreza Moradi, 4 and Michael Nelson. (PMC)

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