Sunday, 27 January 2019

Celery, The Functional Food Which Protects the Brian Neuron Against Alzheimer’s disease (AD)

By Kyle J. Norton

Celery may be the next generation of the natural and pharmaceutical target to discover the major ingredient for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, some scientists suggested.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a brain disorder correlated with major reductions of neurons to the respective target areas, named after German physician Alois Alzheimer.

People who are experiencing the symptoms of mild confusion and difficulty remembering at the older age are eventually developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Although researchers do not know the exact cause of AD. However, they do know certain prevalent risk factors such as genetic proposition, unhealthy diet, and lifestyle, and environmental conditions are associated with the increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

According to the genetic analysis, people who carry the mutation genes associated with the autosomal-dominant AD (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2) and APOE4, affecting approximately 12 percent of the U.S. population are associated to the increased risk of the late-onset AD.

The Western diet with high in saturated and trans fat, red meat, processed foods and low in fruits and vegetables and whole grain are also the major risk factor that causes the disease due the diet in promoting insulin resistance, decreased endothelial production of nitric oxide, free radical excess, inflammatory metabolites, homocysteine, and oestrogen deficiency.

Dr. Berrino F, the researchers at the Istituto nazionale per lo studio e la cura dei tumori in the investigation of the correlation among patients with the AD and follow the Western diet before the disease onset said, "theoretically (AD) be prevented (or delayed) by relatively simple dietary measures aimed at increasing insulin sensitivity (through reduction of refined sugars and saturated fats from meat and dairy products), the ratio between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (e.g. from fish and respectively seed oils), antioxidant vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B6, phytoestrogens (vegetables, whole cereals, and legumes, including soy products), vitamin B12 (bivalve molluscs, liver), and Cr, K, Mg, and Si salts".

These results suggested if you follow a lifestyle with moderate exercise and prevented exposure to chemical toxicity, before the disease onset you are at the substantially lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Celery is a species of Apium graveolens, belonging to the family Apiaceae. It is cultivated all around the globe as a vegetable.

The veggie can grow to 1/2 m tall with stalks (leaf on the top) arranging in a conical shape joined at a common base.

Researchers on the team of neurodegenerative program at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College in the reaffirm the effect of Chinese celery on neuroprotective effects showed that L-3-n-butylphthalide (L-NBP), an extract from celery seeds demonstrates a significant activity in inhibiting oxidative injury, neuronal apoptosis, and glial activation, reducing amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) processing and Aβ generation in rat model.

The study focuses on the neuro effect of 12 months old AβPP/PS1 mice given 15 mg/kg L-NBP by oral gavage for 3 months. 

At the end of the experiment, L-NBP treatment significantly improved the spatial learning and memory deficits, compared to the vehicle-treated AβPP/PS1 mice.

The expressions of the cyclin-dependent kinase in regulating cell cycle and glycogen synthase kinase 3β in regulating cell migration, the most important kinases involved in tau phosphorylation found abundant in neurons of the central nervous, were markedly decreased by L-NBP treatment.

These results indicated the progression of the AD in the alternation of neuron cells expression were inhibited by the application of L-NBP.

This reduction of tau phosphorylation and kinases activations caused by injection of L-NBP was observed in the biomarker of neuro-cell differentiation.

Unfortunately, the application did not exert any effect on cerebral Aβ plaque deposition and Aβ levels in brain homogenates.

Dr. Peng Y, the lead scientist wrote, " L-NBP shows promising candidate of multi-target neuronal protective agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease."

Further assessment of the effects of L-NBP on learning and memory in a triple-transgenic AD mouse model (3xTg-AD) that develops both plaques and tangles with aging, as well as cognitive deficits, researchers found that after Ten-month-old 3xTg-AD mice were given 15 mg/kg L-NBP by oral gavage for 18 weeks
* L-NBP treatment significantly improved learning deficits and long-term spatial memory, compared with vehicle control treatment.

* L-NBP treatment significantly reduced total cerebral Abeta plaque deposition and lowered Abeta levels in brain homogenates but had no effect on fibrillar Abeta plaques.

* L-NBP markedly enhanced soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion (alphaAPPs), alpha-secretase, and PKCalpha expression that have been known in the prevention of the molecular mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD).

* L-NBP treatment in 3xTg-AD mice also reduced glial activation and oxidative stress compared with control treatment, an indication of AD inhibition.

These remarkable results once again, indicated that L-NBP can be promising preclinical potential as a multitarget drug for the prevention and/or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Taken all together, celery processed a high amount bioactive compound L-3-n-butylphthalide (L-NBP) may be considered a functional food in the prevention and combined with primary therapy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

However, further data collection large example size and multi-centers studies performed with human consumption of the whole food or its bioactive compounds during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of celery anti-Alzheimer's disease possibilities.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(2) L-3-n-butylphthalide reduces tau phosphorylation and improves cognitive deficits in AβPP/PS1-Alzheimer's transgenic mice by Peng Y1, Hu Y, Xu S, Li P, Li J, Lu L, Yang H, Feng N, Wang L, Wang X.(PubMed)
(3) L-3-n-butylphthalide improves cognitive impairment and reduces amyloid-beta in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease by Peng Y1, Sun J, Hon S, Nylander AN, Xia W, Feng Y, Wang X, Lemere CA(PubMed)
(4) [Western diet and Alzheimer's disease]. [Article in Italian] by Berrino F. (PubMed)

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