Friday, 18 January 2019

Artichoke Kills Leukemic Cells Before They Can Spread, According to Studies

By Kyle J. Norton

Artichoke may have a positive and profound effect in reducing risk and treatment of leukemia with no side effects, according to studies.

Leukemia is a medical condition arisen from the abnormal white blood cells produced by the bone marrow.

There are several forms of leukemia, including acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).

CLL and AML are the most common cancers in adults and ALL are most common in children.

 Contrast to chronic leukemias that take months or years to develop, acute leukemias start and develop within days or weeks.

According to the Leukemia Research, Leukemia causes the death of approximately 68,000 every year. Adults are 10 times more likely to develop the disease, compared to children.

And, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the 7th most common cancer in the U.S. The 5-year survival rate for all subtypes of leukemia is 61.4 percent.

Certain types of blood disorder, exposure to radioactive substances, and certain medication are some of the prevalent risks of cancer.

Some researchers suggested that cigarette smoking may contribute to the large part of AML onset compared to other subtypes.

Dr. Fircanis S in the study of "The relation between cigarette smoking and risk of acute myeloid leukemia: an updated meta-analysis of epidemiological studies" wrote in the final report, "current and ever smokers have 40% (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22-1.60; P < 0.001) and 25% (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36; P < 0.001) increased risk of developing AML when compared with non-smokers".

And, "Intensity of smoking of <10, 10-20, 20-30, and >30 cigarettes per day was associated with RRs of AML of 1.27, 1.36, 1.55, and 1.77, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend). Duration of smoking of <20 and >20 years was associated with RRs of 1.07 and 1.44, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend). Cumulative smoking of <10, 10-20, 20-30, and >30 pack-years was associated with RRs of 1.13, 1.23, 1.39, and 1.71, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend)".

The results strongly suggested that cigarette smoking is a major risk factor of acute myeloid leukemia and the risk of AML is increased depending on how many cigarettes that a person smokes a day.

Artichoke is a perennial thistle of Cynara cardunculus species of the Cynara genus, belonging to the family Carduoideae native to Southern Europe around the Mediterranean.

The herbal plant has been used in traditional medicine as a liver protective and detoxified agent, and to treat digestive disorders, abdominal pain gas and bloating, etc.

Researchers on finding a natural whole food for the treatment of leukemia against the overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines investigated the extract and 3 participating compounds of artichoke leaves (bracts on the human leukemia cell line.

Injection of the artichoke extract and compounds showed to modulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of proinflammatory protein (NF-κB) and the intracellular proinflammatory reactive oxygen species.

Low concentrations of the extract inhibited the enzyme AKR1B1 associated with the activation of NF-κB and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes.

The efficacy of the extract in the attenuation of the expression of the inflammation-related enzymes COX-2 and MMP-2 was attributed to the inhibiting activity of NF-κB.

In other words, artichoke reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in activation the protein NF-κB.

By suppressing the enzyme AKR1B1, artichoke reduced the inflammatory expression in facilitating the onset of leukemia.

Furthermore, in order to reveal more information about artichoke extract (CCE) against leukemia researchers evaluated the CCE effect on the growth of L1210 and HL-60 leukemia cells.

Injection with a variety of concentrations of CCE (500-2500 microg/microL) for 24 h resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of leukemia cell growth observed by the cell cycle arrest in S phase.

CCE also induced apoptosis of leukemia cells, detected by the sub-G(0) cell population and apoptotic DNA fragmentation. 

The findings suggested that CCE inhibits leukemia cells through several mechanisms including the proteins associated with cell cycle division, inflammation, and cell degradation.

Taken altogether, artichoke may be considered a functional remedy for the prevention and treatment of leukemia, pending to the result of larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Artichoke Leaf Extract Inhibits AKR1B1 and Reduces NF-κB Activity in Human Leukemic Cells by Miláčková I1, Kapustová K1, Mučaji P1, Hošek J. (PubMed)
(2) Growth inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of Cynara cardunculus L. in leukemia cells involves cell cycle arrest, cytochrome c release and activation of caspases by Nadova S1, Miadokova E, Mucaji P, Grancai D, Cipak L. (PubMed)
(3) The relation between cigarette smoking and risk of acute myeloid leukemia: an updated meta-analysis of epidemiological studies by Fircanis S1, Merriam P, Khan N, Castillo JJ. (PubMed)

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