Monday, 28 January 2019

Anacardic Acid, A Bioactive Ingredient Which Processes Anti Lung Cancer Potential

By Kyle J. Norton

Anacardic acids may be considered a bioactive ingredient for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer, some scientists found.

Lung cancer is a condition of the abnormal growth of the cells in the lung's tissue. Most cases of primary lung cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of lung tissue.

At the early stage, most patients do not experience any symptoms. However, as cancer continues to advance, it can put pressure on the nearby healthy tissue such as blood vessel and nerve cell, leading to localized symptoms and severe pain.

At the later stage, lung cancells can also travel through blood and fluids circulation to infect other healthy tissue and organ, leading to secondary metastasis.

According to the 2007 statistic, the most common form of primary lung cancers is derived from epithelial cells. In the US, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, causing 158,683 people deaths, including 88,329 men and 70,354 women.

The most common form of lung cancer metastasis is brain cancer, according to the statistic, approximately, 40 percent of people with advanced lung cancer will develop brain cancer sometimes during the disease.

The causes of lung cancer are unknown. However, epidemiologically suggested that although there are many risk factors associated with the onset of lung cancers, smoking tobacco, and second-hand smoke are considered the most risk of the diseases.

Other risk factors include radon asbestos, occupational exposure to certain chemicals, outdoor air pollution, personal or family history of lung cancer,  personal history of lung disease and long-term exposure to radiation.

Dr. Muhammad Furrukh, in the concern of  tobacco smoking in the risk of lung cancer, said, "Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes" and  "Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype"

"Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables".

Anacardic acids are phenolic lipids, phytochemicals of the organic acid found abundantly in cashews, mangoes, etc.

On finding a natural ingredient for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer, researchers looked into the anti-lung cancer effect of anacardic acid (AA), a constituent of the cashew nutshell.

Application of the chemical compound exerted a strong cytotoxic activity against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, through the expression of reactive oxidative spices.

AA also activated the proteins associated with cells apoptosis in A549 cells.

Furthermore, in the study of the efficacy of AA against cancer cells, researchers looked into the role of the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) during the cancer inhibition.

Application of AA exerted a strong anti-cancer effect through a series of mechanisms, including induced cancer cells apoptosis by overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines correlated with the inhibition of various gene products associated with cancer cell proliferation and survival.

Moreover, the application of AA also blocked the formation of the formation of new blood vessels induced by the tumor. 

The finding suggested that AA inhibits the function of NF-κB, a protein complex in controlling the transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

Dr. Sung B, after taking into account co and confounders said, " (There is) a novel role for anacardic acid in potentially preventing or treating cancer through modulation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway".

Taken altogether, Anacardic acid (AA) may be used for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer, pending to the confirmation of a larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Anacardic acid induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells by Seong YA, Shin PG, Kim GD. (PubMed)
(2) Anacardic acid (6-nonadecyl salicylic acid), an inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses expression of nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and inflammation through inhibition of the inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor-kappaBalpha kinase, leading to potentiation of apoptosis by Sung B, Pandey MK, Ahn KS, Yi T, Chaturvedi MM, Liu M, Aggarwal BB. (PubMed)
(3) Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer. Perception-changing facts by Muhammad Furrukh. (PMC)

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