Tuesday, 15 January 2019

Phytochemical Sulforaphane (Dithiolthiones) and Breast cancer, According to Studies

Kyle J. Norton

Researchers may have found a natural ingredient for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer with no side effects, according to studies.

Breast cancer is a medical condition associated with the abnormal cell growth in the breast tissue due to the alternation of cell DNA.

Most cases of the breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the tissues of the breast either from the milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk.

At the early stage of breast cancer, most patients experience the forming of lumps or modules on the breast or nearby breast tissue.

However, at the later stage, patients may experience symptoms of swelling of all or part of a breast, breast or nipple pain, nipple retraction and large lumps on the breast.

Some invasive breast cancer in this stage can also induce secondary metastasis through the blood and fluids circulation.

According to the statistic, women diagnosed with breast cancer at stage 0 and 1 have the 5 years of the survival rate of 100%. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during lifetime of a woman is 1/8.

Therefore self-examination every month may be important to all women who are classified into the higher prevalent risk group.

The causes of breast cancer are unknown. Epidemiological studies suggested that age, gender, race, family history and menstrual, l and reproductive history are some of the prevalent risk factors for breast cancer.

Some researchers suggested that risk breast cancer in women who carry the mutated genes BRCA1 and 2 have 60%  for the development of breast cancer before the age of 90.

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

With an aim to find a natural ingredient for the treatment of breast cancer, researchers at the University of Michigan evaluated sulforaphane, a natural compound derived from broccoli/broccoli sprouts, efficacy in inhibiting breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumor growth upon cell reimplantation in secondary mice and human breast cancer cell line.

Sulforaphane injection of (1-5 micromol/L) decreased the cancer cells by 65% to 80% in human breast cancer cells and reduced the size and number of primary mammospheres by 8- to 125-fold and 45% to 75% in tested mice, respectively.

Daily injection with 50 mg/kg sulforaphane for 2 weeks reduced breast cancer cell in the human cell line by >50%.

Sulforaphane eliminated breast CSCs in vivo, and in the secondary mice.

Furthermore, by assessing the effect of SFN alone and in combination with a chemotherapeutic agent, gemcitabine, on the proliferative potential of MCF-7 cells, researchers also found that SFN shows cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner via an apoptotic mode of cell death.

A combinational treatment of SFN and gemcitabine on MCF-7 cells resulted in growth inhibition in a synergistic manner with a combination index. 

The efficacy of SFN against MCF-7 was attributed to the inhibition associated with the anti-apoptotic and inflammatory gene, in a time-dependent manner, without causing harm to the nearby healthy cells.

Taken altogether, phytochemical sulforaphane may be considered a bioactive compound for the prevention and combined with primary therapy for the treatment of breast cancer.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells by Li Y1, Zhang T, Korkaya H, Liu S, Lee HF, Newman B, Yu Y, Clouthier SG, Schwartz SJ, Wicha MS, Sun D.(PubMed)
(2) Sulforaphane inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells and augments the therapeutic index of the chemotherapeutic drug, gemcitabine by Hussain A1, Mohsin J, Prabhu SA, Begum S, Nusri Qel-A, Harish G, Javed E, Khan MA, Sharma C.(PubMed)
(3) Sulforaphane controls TPA-induced MMP-9 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway, but not AP-1, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by Lee YR1, Noh EM, Han JH, Kim JM, Hwang BM, Kim BS, Lee SH, Jung SH, Youn HJ, Chung EY, Kim JS.(PubMed)

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