Wednesday, 3 July 2019

Bromelain, Inhibits Melanoma in Vitro and Vivo

By Kyle J. Norton

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer caused by the alternation of DNA of the cells from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

Most cases of melanoma start in melanocytes on skin before spreading to the nearby tissue. In the advanced stage, the cancer cells can also travel a distance away from the originated site to infect other tissues and organ, leading to secondary metastasis, through the circulation of blood and fluids.

Most common sites of melanoma metastasis are the lung and breast.

Most common symptoms are visible by examing the change of skin, including the sores that can not heal itself, redness or swelling, persistent itching, tenderness and pain and particular, change of skin color and bleeding off of a mole compared to the normal moles.

If you are experiencing some of the aforementioned symptoms, please check with your doctor to rule out the possibility.

According to the statistics provided by the American Cancer Society, in 2019, approximately, 96,480 new melanomas will be diagnosed (about 57,220 in men and 39,260 in women) in the US. The condition also causes the death of 4,740 men and 2,490 women.

Believe it or not. most cases of melanoma are found in older adults. The average age diagnosed with melanoma is 63.

Compared to African Americans, melanoma is more than 20 times more common in whites.

Out of many risk factors associated with the onset of melanoma, some researchers suggested the misunderstanding of the health benefits and adverse effect of sun and tanning exposure may be the leading cause of melanoma.

Dr. Caroline Chang, the lead scientist said, "Despite advances in its detection and treatment, melanoma remains the primary cause of mortality from skin disease in the Western world.". 

And, "Several personal risk factors for developing melanoma are well established, including family history, multiple moles, fair skin, blue eyes, red hair, and freckles.Environmental exposures, chiefly from UV radiation, including outdoor sunburns and indoor tanning exposure, also have been associated with increased melanoma risk".

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

With an aim to find a natural ingredient against melanoma, researchers examined the effects of Bromelain pharmacological activity on B16F10 murine melanoma cells in vitro.

Compared to other parts of the plant, the highest enzymatic activity that was found in bromelain extracted from the pulp and peels and the optimum bromelain pH among all studied pineapple parts was 6.0 in a temperature above 50 °C in all bromelain extracts.

According to the results from the tested assays, bromelain showed a pharmacological activity against B16F10 melanoma cells by inhibiting 100% of tumor cell proliferation in vitro.

Based on the results, researchers said, "Since bromelain activity was found in different parts of pineapple plants, pineapple residues from the food industry may be used for bromelain extraction".

Furthermore, in melanoma-A375 cells, application of bromelain exhibited a reduction in proliferation and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth through its anti-inflammatory activity.

Moreover, bromelain was found to inhibit the melanoma-A375 cells by depleting intracellular glutathione and generating reactive oxygen species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization.

Bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase by exhibiting the expression of proteins associated with cell cycle arrest.

Additionally, bromelain increased the expression of proapoptotic and anti-proliferative proteins that cause apoptosis of the tested cell line.

Dr. Bhui K, the lead scientist wrote, "Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy".

Taken altogether, bromelain may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of melanoma, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) The biochemical characterization, stabilization studies and the antiproliferative effect of bromelain against B16F10 murine melanoma cells by São Paulo Barretto Miranda ÍK1, Fontes Suzart Miranda A2, Souza FV3, Vannier-Santos MA2, Pirovani CP4, Pepe IM5, Rodowanski IJ5, Ferreira KT4, Mendes Souza Vaz L6, de Assis SA. (PubMed)
(2) Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis by Bhui K1, Tyagi S, Srivastava AK, Singh M, Roy P, Singh R, Shukla Y. (PubMed)
(3) More Skin, More Sun, More Tan, More Melanoma by Caroline Chang, MD, Era Caterina Murzaku, BS, Lauren Penn, MD, Naheed R. Abbasi, MD, MPH, Paula D. Davis, MFA, Marianne Berwick, PhD, MPH, and David Polsky, MD, PhD. (PMC)

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