Tuesday, 30 July 2019

Bromelain, the Potential Prevention and Treatment of Flu Influenza

By Kyle J. Norton

Influenza A, B, C, and D are 4  types of flu influenza. Influenza virus A and B are seasonal flu occurred during the fall, winter and early spring, that causes sniffling, aching, coughing, and running and stuffy nose and fever, affecting over 20% of the general population.

Influenza virus types C in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae tends to cause mild upper respiratory infections, similar to those of cold.

Influenza D viruses only affect cattle.

Individuals who have influenza are usually recovered within one week and symptoms are gone within 2 weeks.

However, people with immature and weakened immune system including young children under age 5, adults older than age 65, elderly in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities, chronic illnesses, such as asthma, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease and diabetes are not only associated with the risk of influenza but also increase the risk of influenza deadly complications.

Pregnant women and women up to two weeks postpartum due to change of the immune system are more prone to influenza and influenza complications.

Most common H and N subtype are influenza A that has been mutated to affect the combination of human, swine, and bird flu viruses, including
* H1N1 - Swine Flu
H1N1 normally is only transmitted among pigs. However, as of today, H1N1 became the first flu pandemic in the world that causes respiratory illness. 

* H5N1 - Bird Flu
H5N1 is the strain of influenza known as a bird or avian flu. Before, it is transmitted between birds, but today, it now can be passed from bird to human. The strain is dangerous to humans with high death rates.

Most common symptoms of influenza are high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, sneezing, and persistent fatigue.

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

On finding a potential compound for the prevention and treatment of influenza, researchers compared the effect of two preparations of bromeline ("Sigma Co., Catalogues' Nos. B2252 and B5144).s

According to the tested assay, in influenza A(H1N1) virus, B5144 did not have any impact on it under similar experimental conditions. 

Furthermore, B5144 also showed an incomplete effect on influenza A(H3N2) virus with particles (with intact external coatings).

However, enzyme B2252 was effective for all viruses selected for testing, with the highest effect was noted for influenza A(H1N1) and B viruses.

In other words, not all bromelines are the same, some are more effective in the inhibition of viral influenza than the others.

Taken altogether, preparations of bromeline generation from bromelain may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of influenza, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Generation of recombinant pandemic H1N1 influenza virus with the HA cleavable by bromelain and identification of the residues influencing HA bromelain cleavage by Wang W1, Suguitan AL Jr, Zengel J, Chen Z, Jin H. (PubMed)
(2) [The use of bromelain in obtaining the subviral particles of influenza A and B viruses].[Article in Russian] by Ivanova VT, Kordiukova LV, Manykin AA, Burtseva EI, Zagorskaia IuV, Oskerko TA, Slepushkin AN. (PubMed)

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