Friday, 19 July 2019

Tomato Protects the Ovary Against Cell DNA Alternation

By Kyle J. Norton

Ovarian cancer is a medical condition caused by irregular cell growth in the lining tissues of the ovary.

Most cases of ovarian cancer begin in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the ovary tissue before penetrating into deeper layers and colonizing the entire organ to induce secondary metastasis through blood and fluids circulation.

Ovarian cancer can be divided into the types below
* Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
The epithelial ovarian tumor also is known as a surface epithelial-stromal tumor, caused by the alternation of DNA of the cell on the surface of the ovary. Epithelial ovarian tumor is the most common form of ovarian cancer accounted for over 90% of all cases, including serious tumor, endometrioid tumor, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.

* Germ cell ovarian cancer
Germ cell ovarian tumor is a cancer of the egg-producing cells within the ovary and can be cancerous or non-cancerous tumors. The condition tends to occur in children and teens as a result of birth defects.

* Sex cord-stromal ovarian cancer
Sex cord-stromal ovarian tumor is a cancer of the tissue of the ovary accounted for 8% of ovarian cancers. It is believed that the cancer is caused by excess estrogen produced by sex cord-stromal ovarian tumor. Sex cord-stromal ovarian cancer tends to develop in the older age group.

Most common symptoms of ovarian cancer are abdominal pain, bloating or swelling, quickly feeling full when eating, discomfort in the pelvis area and change of bowel movement accompanied by the general symptoms shared by other cancers, such as unintended weight loss, gastrointestinal discomfort, loss of appetite and persistent fatigue.

Some researchers suggested that the widespread obesity caused by the promotion of a high-fat diet in the Western world may correlate to the increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Dr. Foong KW, wrote, " " 14 studies found a statistically significant positive association between ovarian cancer risk and higher body mass index, 26 studies found no significant association, and 3 studies found a negative association between ovarian cancer risk and higher body mass index".

Tomato is red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, the tomato is grown worldwide for the commercial purpose
and often in the greenhouse.

With an aim to find a potential compound for the treatment of ovarian cancer, researchers investigated the combined effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (rGO-AgNPs, with biomolecule called lycopene,) and trichostatin A (TSA) in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3).

According to the tested assays, AgNPs uniformly distributed on the surface of graphene sheet with an average size between 10 and 50 nm, rGO-Ag and TSA demonstrated significant inhibition of the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner.

At low concentration, the combination of rGO-Ag and TSA not only have a significant effect on cell viability, and increased cytotoxicity but also inhibited the level of malondialdehyde (oxidative stress) and decreased the level of glutathione (antioxidants) that induced cancer cell mitochondrial dysfunction.

Based on the findings, researchers suggested, " This combination chemotherapy could be possibly used in advanced cancers that are not suitable for radiation therapy or surgical treatment and facilitate overcoming tumor resistance and disease progression".

Furthermore, the combination of rGO-Ag and TSA induced cancer cell apoptosis was attributed to their pronounced effect on DNA fragmentation and double-strand breaks.

In order to reveal more information about lycopene, anti-ovarian cancers activity scientists examined the protective role of dietary lycopene against the risk of ovarian cancer.

The search of the meta-analysis.identified 10 studies selected from the PubMed database, and final risk estimates, using a random-effects model showed that lycopene showed an effect against the risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women, compared to an insignificant reverse association between dietary lycopene and ovarian cancer risk to other groups.

In other words, rGO-AgNPs, with biomolecule called lycopene, are effective in reduced risk and treatment of ovarian cancer in all groups compared to that of dietary lycopene in postmenopausal women.

Taken altogether, tomatoes processed abundantly bioactive compound lycopene may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of lycopene in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Novel biomolecule lycopene-reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle enhances apoptotic potential of trichostatin A in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) b yZhang XF1,2, Huang FH1, Zhang GL3, Bai DP4, Massimo DF5, Huang YF4, Gurunathan S. (PubMed)
(2) Meta-analysis of the association between dietary lycopene intake and ovariancancer risk in postmenopausal women by Li X1, Xu J. (PubMed)
(3) Obesity and ovarian cancer risk: A systematic review by Foong KW1, Bolton H. (PubMed)

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