Monday, 22 July 2019

Phytochemical Betacyanins Protects the Bladder Cell Integrity Against DNA Alternation

By Kyle J. Norton

Cancer is a group of a medical and chronic condition characterized by irregular cells growth in the tissue of the specific organ in the body.

Most cases of cancer start in the cell on the surface of the inner lining tissue of an organ. After penetrating into deeper layers and colonizing the entire organ, the cancerous cells can spread to healthy tissue of other organs through lymph and blood.

The bladder is a hollow elastic organ in the center of the lower abdomen that collects urine from the kidneys and excreted them through the urethra.

Bladder cancer occurs when cells mass in the inner lining of the bladder forms a malignant growth or tumor. Bladder cancer developed in the bladder lining has also been found to spread through the bladder wall to nearby organs such as the prostate gland in men or the uterus in women.

Bladder cancer can be classified depending on its proliferation
* Superficial types of bladder cancer
The most recurrent type of bladder cancers has a characteristic by noninvasive. These types of bladder cancer can be controlled or removed by regular cystoscopy.

* Invasive types of bladder cancer
Invasive types of bladder cancer tend to spread after beginning in cells in the lining of the bladder. These types of cancer often require surgery by removing part or the whole bladder.

The exact causes of bladder cancer are not identified. However, smoking has been found to induce a substantial risk of bladder cancer incidence.

Dr. Neal D Freedman, the lead scientist wrote, "...the population attributable risk of bladder cancer for tobacco smoking is 50–65% in men and 20–30% in women and that current cigarette smoking triples bladder cancer risk relative to never smoking".

And, "Compared to a pooled estimate of US data from cohorts initiated between 1963 and 1987, relative risks for smoking in the more recent NIH-AARP cohort were higher, with population attributable risks for women compared to those for men".

Betacyanins are phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

On finding a natural pigment for the prevention and treatment of cancer, researchers examined Betacyanins (BC) purified from beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. Rubra L.) tested, alone or in combination with vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. in the proliferation rate in T24 bladder cancer cells.

According to the tested analysis,
* Combination of BC and XVX exhibited a synergistic effect that inhibits proliferation in T24 cancer cells at 24 and 48 h but not after 72 h of incubation.

* The combination induced apoptosis of T24 bladder cancer cells observed by means of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis by increasing the expression in caspases associated with cell death programming.

The inhibition of bladder cancer cell line was found to enhance the expression levels of the pro-apoptotic gene and inhibit anti-apoptotic and survival proteins.

Extrinsically, administration of BC increase of the activity of caspase 8, a protein associated with the induction of apoptosis.

Interestingly, the XVX, BC, and their combination induced cancer cell death without exhibiting a cytotoxic effect on normal and healthy human cells.

Based on the findings, Dr. Scarpa ES, the lead scientist said, "the efficacy and the mechanisms of the action of BC and XVX, extracted from edible plants, and suggested that a diet or a nutrition supplement, enriched with these bioactive molecules, could be used in the prevention of human bladder cancer".

Taken altogether, betacyanins may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of betacyanins in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) C-Glycosyl Flavonoids from Beta vulgaris Cicla and Betalains from Beta vulgaris rubra: Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antiinflammatory Activities-A Review by Ninfali P1, Antonini E1, Frati A1, Scarpa ES. (PubMed)
(2) Betacyanins enhance vitexin-2-O-xyloside mediated inhibition of proliferation of T24 bladder cancer cells by Scarpa ES1, Emanuelli M2, Frati A1, Pozzi V2, Antonini E1, Diamantini G1, Di Ruscio G3, Sartini D3, Armeni T3, Palma F1, Ninfali P. (PubMed)
(3) Bladder Cancer by Kyle J, Norton
(4) Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women by Neal D Freedman, PhD, MPH,1 Debra T Silverman, ScD, ScM,1 Albert R Hollenbeck, PhD,2Arthur Schatzkin, MD, DrPH,1 and Christian C Abnet, PhD, MPH. (PMC)

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