Thursday, 28 December 2017

Lentils Antioxidants in Reduced ROS Over Expression in Induction of Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Kyle J. Norton

Lentils may have a potential effect in inhibited free radicals expression in reduced risk and treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, some researcher opinionated.
Lentil is a type of pulse and tiny legumes that can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and fiber, is a bushy annual plant of genus Lens to the Fabaceae family, native to Middle East.

Antioxidants are types of chemical compound inhibited the expression of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to protect the body against oxidative damage.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key signaling molecules played an important role in generation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to induce progression of inflammatory disorders and  cytotoxicity in tumor cells. Over expression of ROS and decreased antioxidant persistence also may cause endothelial dysfunction and tissue injury in the inflammatory sites.

According to the investigation of  lentil (Morton) extract protective effect on cardiac hypertrophy,  one of the most significant sequelae of cardiovascular diseases suggested that high phenolic compounds (43.4 mg of GAE/g), including thirteen phenolic acid and two flavonoids found in the acetone/water/acetic acid lentil extract express a significant effect in attenuated Ang II-induced rat in elevated contraction of blood vessels to cause hypertension and human cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, the loss of contractile mass from prior infarction through activated antioxidant activities in  decreased intracellular ROS levels.

ROS elevation and in decreased levels of antioxidant have shown to increase oxidative stress in stimulated lipid peroxidation in induction of endothelial cells damage and promoted lipid accumulated in the inner wall of arteries, through their effects on inflammation, disturbed blood flow and arterial wall remodeling.

Lentils antioxidant properties in the experiment of measurement of injection effects of  2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in reduced antioxidant power in oxygen radical absorbing capacity, in vitro  containing different groups of phenolic compounds also exerted the ability to inhibit the formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion through chelating metal ions or inhibiting ROS -related enzyme expressions.

Further more, the analysis of free redical scavegening activities of methanolic extracts of the seed coat and the cotyledon of two varieties of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and two varieties of dark peas (Pisum sativum L.), suggested that the deed coat of lentils scored a huge antioxidant capacities
in compared to the cotyledon in lentils and peas through the significantly higher levels of phenolic compounds with flavonoid structure.

More interestingly, the evaluation of phenolic extracts from 20 Canadian lentil cultivars (Lens culinaris) for total phenolic contents and composition, antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC), and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase suggested that phenolic compounds identified including the majority being flavonoids, kaempeferol glycosides, catechin/epicatechin glucosides and procyanidins not only demonstrate significantly antioxidant activities, but also express a strong inhibition of of α-glucosidase and lipase activities associated with glucose and lipid metabolism in the intestine.

Dr. Florinda Fratiannia, in the study of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus), lentil (Lens culinaris), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars from the Campania region of Southern Italy, postulated, "Lentils (cv Colliano and San Gerardo) demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity, (EC50 not higher than 2.3 mg/g), confirming that lentils are an excellent antioxidant food" and " these legumes can be considered therapeutic functional foods due to their significant content of functional proteins and carbohydrates and their extraordinary reserve of secondary metabolites and bioactive constituents that are beneficial for managing and preventing several chronic illnesses in humans".

People who are susceptible or at higher risk of infection may want to add some portions of lentils into
their diet to ameliorated ROS precipitation of inflammation.

The information findings suggested that lentils with huge numbers of phytochemicals may be considered as a function food in stimulated antioxidant expression through immune system in fighting against foreign invasion and prevented ROS over production in induction of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Assessment of in vitro antioxidant capacity of the seed coat and the cotyledon of legumes in relation to their phenolic content by M.DueñasT.HernándezI.Estrella(Science direct)
(2) Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of different grass pea (Lathyrus sativus), lentils (Lens culinaris), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) ecotypes of the Campania region (Southern Italy)
Florinda Fratiannia, Federica Cardinalea, Autilia Cozzolinoa, Tiziana Granesea, Donatella Albaneseb, Marisa Di Matteob, Massimo Zaccardellic, Raffaele Coppolaa, Filomena Nazzaroa(Science direct)(3) Phenolic profiles of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and their contribution to antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Zhang B1, Deng Z2, Ramdath DD3, Tang Y4, Chen PX5, Liu R3, Liu Q3, Tsao R6.(PubMed)
(4) Review Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects Kumar Ganesan ID and Baojun Xu (The International journal of molecular sciences)
(5) Morton lentil extract attenuated angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in vitro by Yao FR1, Sun CW, Chang SK.(PubMed)

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