Thursday, 7 December 2017

Herbal Therapy: Green Tea and Green Tea Epigallocatechin‑3-O-gallate (EGCG) In Ameliorated Risk and Treatment of Leukemia

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)

Green tea may have positive and potential effect in reduced risk and treatment of leukemia, according to studies of some scientists.

Green tea, a precious drink processes numbers of health benefit known to almost everyone in Asia and Western world. However, as yin in nature herbal medicine or food, long term injection of large amounts may obstruct the balance of yin-yang, induced "yin excessive syndrome" or "yang vacuity syndrome" including weaken immunity and painful case of GERD,... according to traditional Chinese medicine's Yin-Yang theory.

Leukemia is a malignant progressive disease characterized by irregular cell growth in the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs. According to the statistic, approximately Over 300 children with 0-14 years of age are diagnosed with leukemia each year in Canada alone.

In the review of literature published online, green extract epigallocatechin‑3-O-gallate (EGCG) processed a significant anti cancer effect in reduced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) expansion in the myeloid cells through numbers of mechanisms.

Application of green tea epigallocatechin‑3-O-gallate (EGCG) in reduced risk of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was found to associate to the cellular process of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent pathway and protein kinase Cδ expression to induce cancer cells apoptosis by increased acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and lipid raft clustering in CML cells.

Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), an enzyme plays an important role in normal membrane turnover.

Protein kinase Cδ expression plays a key role in signal transduction and are involved in the regulation of numerous cellular processes.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-is a important second messenger in many biological processes involved a series of molecular functions.

Further analysis also suggested that exhibited sGC function by injection of green tea EGCG, may be an ideal approach to suppresses proliferation and survival of human CML

In other words, reduced expression of regulation of sGC caused by decreased NO production may initiate growth and survival advantage in CML tumor cells.

Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the only known receptor for nitric oxide.

Pharmacologically, pretreatment of soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor NS-2028 decreased nitric oxide (NO)-stimulated sGC activity also reduced green tea polyphenol activities in activated sphingomyelinase (ASM) production.

NS-2028 is a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) displayed a strong and positive effect in elevating the expression of genes associated with cell cycle arrest and differentiation, including gene expression p27, PCAF, C/EBPα, and C/EBPɛ

P27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B is an enzyme inhibitor and in elevation exerted positive regulation of cancer activity at the G1/S phase transition in cell division.

P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), is gene associated in binding to many sequence-specific factors involved in cell growth and/or differentiation.

Enhancer binding protein alphaC/EBPα, with function in modulated the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation.

Enhancer binding protein epsilon (C/EBPɛ) is a protein composed of two polypeptide chains with function in binding to certain DNA regulatory regions.

Additionally,injection of EGCG also demonstrated a hugh effect against cancerous changes in gene expression and reduced expression of epigenetic modifiers DNMT1, HDAC1, HDAC2, and G9a.

DNA Methyltransferase, (DNMT1), Methylation of DNA is an important component of mammalian epigenetic gene regulation.

Histone deacetylase 1and 2  (HDAC1 and 2) are enzymes promote epigenetic repression and with function in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and development.

Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2) or an epigenetic modifier enzymes with function in regulating gene expression involved functional role of cancer initiation and progression. Down regulation of G9a also decreased expression of histone H3K9 (H3K9me2) in inhibited cancer cells proliferation 

Other, in the multicenter case-control study conducted in China, 2008-2013, comprising 442 incident, hematologically confirmed adult leukemia cases and 442 outpatient controls, individually matched to cases by gender, birth quinquennium by the University of Western Australia also confirmed the inverse association of green tea intake to adult leukemia risk.

Risk of leukemia adjusted odds ratios of 0.50 was found in green tea drinkers in compared to non drinker, particularly in patients with GSTM1 and GSTP1 genotypes.

Dr. Liu P, the lead author said, "regular daily green tea consumption may reduce leukemia risk in Chinese adults regardless of GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphic status. The association between green tea and adult leukemia risk varied with GSTT1 genotype".

Taking altogether, green tea and epigallocatechin‑3-O-gallate (EGCG) intake may be considered as secondary therapeutic application combined with standard therapy for treatment of Leukemia regardless to polymorphic status.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-O-gallate induces cell death by acid sphingomyelinase activation in chronic myeloid leukemia Huang Y1, Kumazoe M1, Bae J1, Yamada S1, Takai M1, Hidaka S1, Yamashita S1, Kim Y1, Won Y1, Murata M1, Tsukamoto S1, Tachibana H1.(PubMed)
(2) Green tea polyphenol EGCG causes anti-cancerous epigenetic modulations in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells by Borutinskaitė V1, Virkšaitė A1, Gudelytė G1, Navakauskienė R1.(PubMed)
(3) Green tea consumption and glutathione S-transferases genetic polymorphisms on the risk of adult leukemia by Liu P1, Zhang M2,3, Xie X4, Jin J5, Holman CD2.(PubMed)

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