Monday, 25 December 2017

Food Therapy: Lentils (Pulse) in Ameliorated Risk, Progression and Treatment of Diabetes

Kyle J. Norton

Consumed lentils daily and regularly may have potential and therapeutic effect in reduced risk, progression and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, some scientists suggested.

Lentil, a type of pulse and tiny legumes that can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and fiber, is a bushy annual plant of genus Lens to the Fabaceaefamily, native to Middle East.

Diabetes is a chronic condition of metabolic disorders with abnormal high blood glucose.

Investigation of lentils intake in risk of type 2 diabetes was found to associate to numbers of implication through various aspects in hormone production.

In the study of 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months in four experiments with 15 dietary exposures to various Glycemic Index (GI, 36-88), GLoad (102-305/2000 kcal), and cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose), researchers found that lentil diets with low GLoads (102, 202) treated group displayed not only a significantly reduced fasting and glucose levels observed by oral glucose tolerance test but also decreased expression of adipose tissue in stimulated production of blood glucose through necropsy findings.

Further analysis also indicated that the benefit from low GLoad lentils intake during the length of 7-17 weeks experiment demonstrated a strong inhibition of rats inherently susceptible or resistant to T2DM, measured by random glucose above or below 75 mg/dl, with benefits exceeded dietary factors such as micro-nutrients, macro-nutrient composition, total fiber and dietary caloric density containing in the tiny legume. 

Based on information collected in the weeks of study, Dr. Bolsinger J, the lead author postulated, " Measuring total food intake and the novel concept of cumulative GLoad during growth generated strong correlations between cummunlative GLoad and parameters of .....and T2DM, especially during sexual maturation".

Additionally, in the examine the regular consumption of the germinated lentils also opinionated that intake of lentils expresses a significant effect in improved blood glucose metabolism through hormone production in regulated circulation of glucose through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis controlled by the α-cells of the pancreas in hours after fasting.

Indeed, during the first 8–12 hours of fasting, glycogenolysis controlled by hormone glucagon produced by pancreas in regulated the process to make available of glucose to convert food intake to energy required for the normal functioning of the organs in the body and deposited the access in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates and stimulated liver production of gluconeogenesis to generate glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids in case of lower blood glucose in maintaining proper glucose in the blood.

Any disruption of these processes may result in abnormal blood glucose levels in the blood stream and induce early onset of prediabetes, particularly, in the deficiencies or abnormalities in other glucoregulatory hormones.

Further differentiation, also discovered that lentils high flavonoid and fiber content exert a significant role in improved gut motility and  gut microbiota in metabolic glucose through production of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and gastroinhibitory peptide (GIP) from the L-cells of the intestine.

In fact, the regulation of glucose metabolism was also found to involve many different hormone mechnisms, including glucoregulatory hormones such as insulin, glucagon, amylin, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone, with only insulin, amylin and glucagon produced by pancreas.

Moreover, lentils intake also expressed a therapeutic effect in regulated starch digestibility through theirs' glycemic load in the glycemic index, to maintain average glucose levels in healthy adults and reduce the glucose levels in diabetes in deceased risk of diabetes complications.

The efficacy of pulses, a dry, edible variety of beans, peas, and lentils as a member of both the protein and vegetable food groups with high content of plant-based protein and dietary fiber in improve numerical health benefits may be a result to influence the change of last two revisions of the Dietary Guidelines, from the MyPyramid "meat and beans group" to the MyPlate "protein foods group" in encouraged US population to consumed more of food sources, like pulses.

Taken together, pulse such as lentils may be considered as functional food to reduce risk of abnormal glucose levels in the blood stream of healthy adults and  progression and treatment of diabetes, particularly, in diminished diabetes complications.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1)Low glycemic load diets protect against metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the male Nile rat by Bolsinger J1, Landstrom M2, Pronczuk A3, Auerbach A4, Hayes KC5.(PubMed)
(2) Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects by Kumar Ganesan ID and Baojun Xu (Internation Journal of molecule science)
(2) Legume consumption is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in adults: A prospective assessment from the PREDIMED study by Becerra-Tomás N1, Díaz-López A1, Rosique-Esteban N2, Ros E3, Buil-Cosiales P4, Corella D5, Estruch R6, Fitó M7, Serra-Majem L8, Arós F9, Lamuela-Raventós RM10, Fiol M11, Santos-Lozano JM12, Díez-Espino J4, Portoles O5, Salas-Salvadó J13; PREDIMED Study Investigators(PubMed)
(3) Dietary guidance for pulses: the challenge and opportunity to be part of both the vegetable and protein food groups by Havemeier S1, Erickson J1, Slavin J1.(PubMed)
(4) Glucose Metabolism and Regulation: Beyond Insulin and Glucagon byStephen L. Aronoff, MD, FACP, FACE, Kathy Berkowitz, APRN, BC, FNP, CDE, Barb Shreiner, RN, MN, CDE, BC-ADM and Laura Want, RN, MS, CDE, CCRC, BC-ADM(American Diabetes Association)

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