Friday, 29 December 2017

Food Therapy: Eggplant in Attenuated Risk and Treatment of Colon Cancer

Kyle J. Norton 

Eggplant may have a potential and substantial effect in reduced risk and treatment of colon cancer, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deeply purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

Conon cancer is medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the issues of colon At the later stage, the cancerous cell may invade other healthy tissues and organs a distance away drom the original site.

According to statistic, approximately 4.3 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer at some points during their lifetime.

In human colon (HT29), observed microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, application of several chemical constituents isolated from eggplant, including glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine and their common aglycon solasodine; and the nonsteroidal alkaloid jervine, demonstrated a overwhelming effect in inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation, particularly in the compound glycoalkaloids in compared to others in dose-dependent manner.

Further analysis also suggested that the nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites glycoalkaloids anti colon cancer cells expression was attributed to its derivative α-solamargine and α-solasonine activities in inhibited the growth of the cells in culture (in vitro) and tumor growth in vivo.

Additionally, in HT-29 and HCT-116 cell lines, anthocyanins isolated from eggplant displayed  a substantial antioxidant effect in inhibited reactive oxygen species(ROS) expression in induction of healthy cellular DNA damage through increased production of inflammatory cytokines.

In compared to anthocyanins, administration of nasunin with glycosylation on C3 and C5 and an acyl group (p-coumaric acid) derivatives demonstrated the least effect on ROS reduction but exhibited ROS over expression in induction of cytotoxicity in colon cell lines, thus ameliorating tumor proliferation and site expansion.

Further differentiation, also indicated that nasunin and its deacylated derivatives protected healthy  cells from DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner, although with lesser anti ROS properties.

Dr. Pu Jing, the lead author said, "anthocyanins isolated from Chinese eggplant var. Niu Jiao Qie and other delphinidin have antioxidant activities in colon cancer cells and also protect cells from DNA damage".

In deed, in the evaluation of anthocyanins chemopreventive properties in 25 colon cancer patients confirmed that application, containing 0.5-2.0 grams anthocyanins showed a strong effect in increased anthocyanin concentrations in plasma and urine, reaching approximately 179 ng/gram in tumor tissue at the highest dose, that indicated the phytochemical anthocyanins and their degradation products have reached the colon intact.

Examined tumor tissue from all patients also found that the rate of cancer cells proliferation was also decreased by 7% in compared to pre-intervention value and application in dose dependent also inhibited the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in stimulates growth in cancer cells throughout the colon tumor site.

Dr. Thomasset S, the lead auhtor in the study of "Intact anthocyanins and metabolites in rat urine and plasma after 3 months of anthocyanin supplementation" said, "Studies of doses containing <0.5 gram of bilberry anthocyanins are necessary to adjudge whether they may be appropriate for development as colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents".

The finding information suggested that eggplant with abundant of anthocyanin, glycoalkaloids and other phytochemicals may have a chemo potential in reduced risk and treatment of colon cancer. Intake of eggplant extract should be taken with substantial care to prevent toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells by Lee KR1, Kozukue N, Han JS, Park JH, Chang EY, Baek EJ, Chang JS, Friedman M.(PubMed)
(1) Effect of glycosylation patterns of Chinese eggplant anthocyanins and other derivatives on antioxidant effectiveness in human colon cell lines by Jing P1, Qian B2, Zhao S2, Qi X3, Ye L2, Mónica Giusti M4, Wang X5.(PubMed)
(3) Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes by Friedman M1(PubMed)
(4) Pilot study of oral anthocyanins for colorectal cancer chemoprevention by Thomasset S1, Berry DP, Cai H, West K, Marczylo TH, Marsden D, Brown K, Dennison A, Garcea G, Miller A, Hemingway D, Steward WP, Gescher AJ.(PubMed)

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