Sunday, 17 December 2017

Herbal Therapy: Green Tea EGCG, A Potent Iron Chelator in Regulation of Progression of Parkinson's disease

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)

Green tea may be considered as a functional food and iron chelator in reduced risk and progression of Parkinson's disease, some scientists suggested

Iron chelation therapy is a primary and standard treatment for patients with iron overload.

Green tea, is a precious drink processes numbers of health benefit known to almost everyone in Asia and Western world.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, causing severe depletion of glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs in the striatum.

Investigation of the green tea EGCG effect in risk and progression of PD has been found to associate to many mechanisms involved numbers of aspects.

Application of metal chelation was found to ameliorated the expression of ROS in induction of oxidative stress through a chain of reaction and precipitation of aggregation of alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid peptides deposit in the brain, main leading causes to the onset of  PD.

In iron abnormality PD subjects,  oxidopamine, also known as 6-hydroxydopamine or 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenethylamine(6-OHD), a neurotoxic synthetic organic compound was found to disrupt iron metabolism, leading to over expression of the iron induction of dyshomeostasis cause of iron toxicity and oxidative damage in dopaminergic neurons.

Green tea major polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate used in metal chelation, ameliorated iron dependent free radicals located in the subcellular compartments and cellular membranes, through the effect in inhibited iron input and exhibited iron output in brain areas where it preferentially accumulates in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinsons' disease.

Further analysis of the neurotoxin 6-OHDA causes of iron unstable equilibrium, green extract GECG administration improved the function of hepcidin, a liver-derived hormone in regulated iron dyshomeostasis and gene expression of the iron metabolism through expressions of iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2)  in regulated the RNA level,  between the transcription and the translation of the gene in expression of the iron homeostasis. 

Indeed, In the differentiation of neurotoxin 6-OHDA induced iron dyshomeostasis has shown to increase oxidative stress in damage to neuron cells, green extract GECG effects demonstrated a significant inhibition of free radical and iron free radical expression in the cellular membranes through the antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory system and expression of nuclear factor-like 2(Nrf2) in stimulated production of antioxidant in protection against oxidative damage during injury and inflammation; heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) in increased production of superoxide dismutase and catalase against ROS and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARĪ³) in regulated production of pro and anti inflammatory cytokines and mytokines..

By reducing the over expression of oxidative damage to neuron cells through regulation of iron related factors as mentioned above, iron chelator EGCG can counteract these adverse effects and prevent onset of PD.

Further study of the mechanism on disruption of iron metabolism by 6-OHDA in PD cell line N27, discovered that application of the iron chelator EGCG also disrupts the iron dyshomeostasis in N27 cells (dopaminergic neural cell line) induced by 6-OHDA through regulating iron transporters and regulators expression, such as DMT1 with function in mediation of the entry of dietary iron into these mucosal cells and TfR, a carrier protein for transferrin with function in import iron into the cell and regulated response to intracellular iron concentration and hepcidin, a central regulator in maintain iron homeostasis.

Dysregulation of hepcidin production results in a variety of iron disorders.

Additionally, in 6-OHDA induced neurotoxicity to cause PD, administration of green tea GECG also reduced the intracellular iron retention by decreasing the iron importers and increasing iron exporters, through regulation of the function of iron-regulated transporters, such as ferroportin.

Interestingly, there was a report suggested that intervention of 3 cups of green tea daily for 3 months improved the antioxidant status and reduced oxidative damage in early PD patients without affecting their iron status.

The findings evidences revealed that green tea bioactive polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate may be considered as iron chelator in regulation of PD progression.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Neuroprotective Properties of the Standardized Extract from Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) and Its Main Bioactive Components, Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin Gallate, in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease by Bitu Pinto N1, da Silva Alexandre B2, Neves KR3, Silva AH3, Leal LK3, Viana GS1.(PubMed)
(2) Green tea polyphenols prevent Parkinson's disease: in vitro and in vivo studies Dan Chen by  Iowa State University

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