Sunday, 31 December 2017

Food Therapy: Eggplant In Attenuated Risk and Treatment of Melanoma

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)

Eggplant may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reduced risk and treatment of melanoma, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deeply purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

Melanoma cancer is medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the issues of skin. At the later stage, the cancerous cell may travel a distance away to invade other healthy tissues and organs.

According to statistic, approximately 87,110 new cases of invasive melanoma caner will be diagnosed in the U.S. in 2017.

The investigated the glycoalkaloids isolated from numerous Solanaceous plants, including eggplant in risk of melanoma, suggested that eggplant glycoalkaloids derivatives α-solamargine and α-solasonine demonstrated a significant effect in inhibition of cancer cells proliferation, in both vitro and vivo.

Further analysis of the chemistry and structure-activity also suggested that both α-solamargine and α-solasonine exert a strong antioxidant effect in increased cancer cell apoptosis and decrease tumor formation through expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cancer cellular processes and NF-kappaB cascades in enhanced T-cell development, maturation, and proliferation, in animal models.

Interestingly, in melanoma cell lines, application of glycoalkaloid solamargine showed a complete
inhibition of the growth of metastatic and primary melanoma cell lines WM239 and WM115 with minimum effect on normal and benign WM35 melanoma cells through reduced blood supplies in induced necrosis by rapid induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization in controls the passage to allow intracellular or intraorganellar antigens into and out of lysosomes.

Moreover, the action of glycoalkaloid solamargine in exhibition of cancer cell apoptosis was found to attribute to the physiological processes activated by cathepsin B activity in triggering the extrinsic mitochondrial death pathway through releasing cytochrome c, a hemeprotein found loosely in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1(TNFR1) in expression of  the transcription factor NF-κB in mediated apoptosis.

In the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, Solamargine disrupted the function of hILP/XIAP in blocking cancer cells apoptosis through an interaction with TRAF protein activated by mediating activation of transcription factors of the NF-κB, thus improving caspase-3 cleavage in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis, up regulating Bcl-xL, and Bcl2 in regulated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and cell cycle entry and suppressing apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 Apaf-1 and Bax  family in expression of both anti- or pro-apoptotic regulation.

Dr. Al Sinani SS, the lead author, after taking into account of other con founders said, " Solamargine showed high efficacy in vitro particularly against the vertical growth phase melanoma cells" and "is a promising anti-malignant melanoma drug".

More profoundly, in the researching of chemically isolate and explore an antimelanogenesis inducer in extracts of Solanum melongena L. "Usukawamarunasu" eggplant, the identified dioscin ([25R]-Spirost-5-en-3β-yl) 2-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl) - 4-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside] displayed an overwhelming effect in inhibition of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced melanogenesis in B16 murine melanoma cells.

According to the immunoblot analysis, dioscin prevented B16 murine melanoma cells proliferation was found to attribute to ameliorate the expression of tyrosinase in intracellular production of melanin, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 which were significantly correlate to tumor cell stage and grade and metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival.

Additionally, the suppression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 expression also attenuated
alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in production of melanogenesis in B16 cells.

Further differentiation also indicated that, the identified chemicals also exerted anti melanoma cells preoperative effect through mediating pro-survival functions microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), through inhibition of Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in express a cassette of regeneration-associated genes with alternated DNA transcription caused by phosphorylation in expression of α-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16 cells.

Taking altogether, there is no doubt that Eggplant with abundant phytochemicals may have a therapeutic effect in reduced risk and treatment of melanoma. People with high risk of melanoma are recommended to add some portions of eggplant into their diet for risk prevention.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes by Friedman M1.(PubMed)
(2) Dioscin Derived from Solanum melongena L. "Usukawamarunasu" Attenuates α-MSH-Induced Melanogenesis in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells via Downregulation of Phospho-CREB and MITF by Nishina A1, Ebina K1, Ukiya M1, Fukatsu M1, Koketsu M2, Ninomiya M2, Sato D3, Kimura H4.(PubMed)
(3) Solamargine triggers cellular necrosis selectively in different types of human melanoma cancercells through extrinsic lysosomal mitochondrial death pathway by Al Sinani SS1, Eltayeb EA1, Coomber BL2, Adham SA1.(PubMed)

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