Chickpeas with abundant isoflavones genistein may have a therapeutic and profound effect in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer, some scientists suggested.
Garbanzo bean also known as chickpea is an edible legume of genus Cicer and the family Fabaceae, high in protein and minerals. It is one of the earliest cultivated vegetables, native to Middle East.
Prostate cancer is a medical condition characterized by cells growth uncontrollably in the prostate tissues. At the later stage, the cancerous may infect the tissues and organs distance away from the site of origin.
The investigation of the effects of isoflavone genistein isolated from chickpeas in prostate cancer risk was found to associate to various expressions and mechanisms.
Reactive oxygen species ROS was studied intensively for the duo effects in inhibited cancer development and induced cancer cell apoptosis through cytotoxicty.
On one hand, over expression of ROS with low antioxidant levels may cause cellular damage and induce alternation of DNA transcript being transmitted by mRNA through a complex passage to initiate irregular cell growth, the early stage of cancer development.
On the other hand, over expression of ROS can cause cytotoxicity to the target cancer site in induction of cells death and apoptosis.
Isoflavone genistein isolated from chickpeas was found to exert significantly antioxidant effects on human cells, thus ameliorated oxidative damage to cellular DNA in initiation of cancer development.
Injection of isoflavone genistein to normal cell acted as free radical scavengers not only improved the antioxidants status in inhibited the ROS activity in inauguration and progression of multistage carcinogenesis but also reduced the expression of oxidative stress-response related genes.
Interestingly, such injection also enhanced the over expression ROS function in causing toxicity to cancer cells without harming the nearby healthy cells, thus increasing cancer cells degradation, subsequently in cells death.
In fact, isoflavone genistein, best known as natural tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs) are a class of chemo-medicine with function in inhibited, or blocked, the enzyme tyrosine kinase in induction of apoptosis in several different types of cancers, including prostate cancer.
Further analysis of the effect of isoflavone genistein adminitration also indicated that the phytochemicals induced cancer cell apoptosis by increased expression of Bax protein in suppressed the production of pro apoptotic activity in the cancerous site.
Additionally, isoflavone genistein also demonstrated a significant effect in stimulated the p21, a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) expression in promoted cancer cell cycle arrest.
Application of the phytochemicals also decreased anti apoptotic activities of Bcl-2 and BclXL by blocking the release of mitochondrial contents for enhanced cell division.
More importantly, in the regulation of cellular apoptosis, isoflavone genistein also activated the PARP protein and caspases enzyme with functions to programmed cell death.
Moreover, further evaluation of cancer cell apoptosis due to injection of isoflavone genistein, researchers at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University postulated that in the process in induced cancer cell apoptosis, isoflavone genistein also inhibited NF-κB protein in regulated and controlled transcription of DNA, and cell survival in numbers of cancer, examined by the electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA)
In fact, the expression of NF-κB protein in reduced cancer cell proliferation and site expansion was attributed to the activation of hydrogen peroxide H2O2, with function of cytotoxicity to the tumor and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), a cell signaling protein with function to initiate cellular apoptosis.
Taken together, isoflavones genistein may be effective in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer depending to some factors involving having or not having equol converting bacteria in the intestine, specific polymorphic variation in the region of the associated gene.
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Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Induction of Cancer Cell Death by Isoflavone: The Role of Multiple Signaling Pathways by Yiwei Li, Dejuan Kong, Bin Bao, Aamir Ahmad, and Fazlul H. Sarkar(PMC)
(1) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and other plant-derived protease inhibitor concentrates inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro by Magee PJ1, Owusu-Apenten R, McCann MJ, Gill CI, Rowland IR.(PubMed)
(2) Protease inhibitors: possible anticarcinogens in edible seeds by Troll W, Wiesner R.(PubMed)
(4) Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Some Critical Issues by Hong-Yi Zhang,1,2 Jie Cui,3 Ye Zhang,2 Zhen-Long Wang,1 Tie Chong,1 and Zi-Ming Wang1(PMC)
(5) Induction of Cancer Cell Death by Isoflavone: The Role of Multiple Signaling Pathways by Yiwei Li, Dejuan Kong, Bin Bao, Aamir Ahmad, and Fazlul H. Sarkar(PMC)