Wednesday, 20 December 2017

Food Therapy: Lentils(Bean) Lectin in Reduced Risk of Early Onset and Treatment of Colon Cancer

Kyle J. Norton

Lentils with abundantly bioactive compounds may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reduced risk and treatment of colon cancer, some scientists postulated.

Lentil, type of pulse and tiny legumes that can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and fiber is a bushy annual plant of genus Lens to the Fabaceae family, native to Middle East.

Colon cancer is a medical condition characterized by abnormal cell growth in the colon tissues. At the later stage, the cancerous cells can travel a distance away from the original site to infect other healthy tissues and organ cells.

The evaluation of lentils effect in risk of colon cancer was found to associate to certain mechanisms involving several different aspects.

In the study to compare whether lentil's bioactive micro- and macroconstituents in protection of early onset of colon cancer with chemopreventive agent in 60 weanling Fischer 344 male rats, 4 to 5 weeks of age, randomly assigned to 6 groups (10 rats/group), 5 groups fed with lentils preparation of  raw whole lentils (RWL), raw split lentils (RSL), cooked whole lentils (CWL), and cooked split lentils (CSL) and Raw soybeans (RSB; Glycine max), respectively plus AIN-93G+5% in each group and the control group (C) received AIN-93G diet, observation after injections of azoxymethane carcinogen at 15 mg/kg rat body weight per dose, showed that rats fed with lentils preparation expressed  a strong implication in protection against colon carcinogenesis through reduction of total aberrant crypt foci numbers and increase of hepatic glutathione-S-transferases activities in compared to control group.

Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are colorectal polyps in the lining of the colon and rectum and considered as a marker of a stage preceding the development of cancer.

Liver glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of phase II detoxification enzyme with function to protect our body against toxicity caused by chemical injection through liver detoxification.

Interestingly, in colon cancer cell line  LS174T, lectins differentiated the cancer line into gland like structures through activated anti-epCAM monoclonal antibody with function in inhibition of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a signalling receptor and activator of the wnt pathway in passing signals into a cell through cell surface receptors in expression on tumor-initiating cells.

Furthermore, differentiation of human colon cancer cell lines LS174T, SW1222, and HT29, lectins isolated from some vegetables also showed a significant effect in inhibited proliferation of all the cell lines, particularly, Vicia faba agglutinin, the lectin presented in broad beans in stimulated differentiation of undifferentiated colon cancer cells through expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (epCAM) antibody observed by Western blots without affecting the expression of epCAM.

More importantly, in the analysis of other bean lectin in expression of cytotoxic activity in colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) or azoxy-methane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) in animal model, rat treated with lectin extract after 6 weeks exhibited anti cancer activity through significantly decreased early tumorigenesis triggered by DMH by 70%, but without any evidence of an apoptosis.

Additionally, the application of lectin extract also reduced numbers of  aberrant cryptic foci generated by colon cancer induced agent by 50%, an indication of decreased risk of early onset of colon cancer.

The efficacy of the bean extract lectin in exhibited antiproliferative and proapoptotic expression against colon cancer probably was attributed by decreasing the signal transduction pathway protein , protein kinase B (Akt), in regulated multiple cellular processes such as cell apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell migration and increase caspase 3 activity in induction of cancer apoptosis.

Taken together, although lectin isolated from bean and lentils inhibited colon cancer indirectly through undifferentiated colon cancer cell line to differentiate into gland like structures via expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (epCAM), intake of lectin in supplement form should be taken with care as lectin has been found to induce toxicity in some reports.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Vicia faba agglutinin, the lectin present in broad beans, stimulates differentiation of undifferentiated colon cancer cells by Jordinson M1, El-Hariry I, Calnan D, Calam J, Pignatelli M.(PubMed)
(2) Chemopreventive effect of raw and cooked lentils (Lens culinaris L) and soybeans (Glycine max) against azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci by Faris MA1, Takruri HR, Shomaf MS, Bustanji YK.(PubMed)
(3) Lectin reactivities as intermediate biomarkers in premalignant colorectal epithelium by Boland CR1, Martin MA, Goldstein IJ.(PubMed)
(4) Phaseolus acutifolius Lectin Fractions Exhibit Apoptotic Effects on Colon Cancer: Preclinical Studies Using Dimethilhydrazine or Azoxi-Methane as Cancer Induction Agents by Ulisses Moreno-Celis 1,† ID , Josué López-Martínez 1,†, Alejandro Blanco-Labra 2 , Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez 1 , Laura Elena Estrada-Martínez 1 , Alejandro Eduardo García-Pascalin 1 , María De Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo 1 , Adriana Jheny Rodríguez-Méndez 3 , Carmen Mejía 1 , Roberto Augusto Ferríz-Martínez 1,* and Teresa García-Gasca 1(MOLESCULES)

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