Sunday, 10 December 2017

Food Therapy: Chickpeas Isoflavones In Ameliorated Risk and Treatment of Breast cancer

Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found an ingredient from Chickpeas with substantial and potential impact in breast cancer risk, some studies suggested.

Isoflavones are phytoestrogens derived  from plant with magnificent estrogenic properties.
Garbanzo beans also known as chickpea is an edible legume of genus Cicer and the family Fabaceae, high in protein and minerals. It is one of the earliest cultivated vegetables, native to Middle East.

The investigation of  the effects of isoflavones extracted from chickpeas in ameliorated risk and treatment of breast cancer was found to associate to numbers of aspects and mechanisms.

In deed, injection of isoflavones isolated from seeds and sprouts of chickpeas displayed a significant effect in inhibition of human breast cancer cell lines SKBr3 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) at dose of ICS  at 10-60 µg/mL.

According to the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, the phytochemicals significantly restrained the proliferation of both cell lines in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion.

Additionally observation based on results from Wright-Giemsa staining as well as annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide (Annexin V/PI) staining, the inhibition of the phytoestrogen administration also can be seed through increased cytoclasis and physical body of cells death.
Cytoclasis is the presence of destruction of cells by fragmentation

Quantitative Annexin V/PI assays further showed that increased dose of isoflavones application resulted in increased number of apoptotic cells.

In fact, the effect of ICS in promoted apoptosis of both cancer cell lines may also be a result of activation of the expression of gene Bcl-2-associated X protein in induced cell death and decreased gene Bcl-2-in expression of anti apoptotic activity, observed by the semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR.

Bcl-2 family protein is a modulator responsible for regulation of cell apoptosis.

Further Western blot analysis also found that ICS injection also expressed a significantly restricted proliferation of cancer cell lines SKBr3 and MCF-7 through the increased expression of caspase 7, caspase 9 in regulated cell apoptosis and  tumor suppressors P53, and mediator of cell cycle arrest  P21 in a dose-dependent manner. 

Interestingly, in flow cytometry assays using the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide showed a dose-dependent in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential following ICS treatment.

Treatment using ICS also increased reactive oxygen species production that can be deadly to cancer cell  through elevating toxicity without harming nearby healthy cells.

Deceased mitochondrial membrane potential may deplete cell energy which plays an important role for cancer cells survival and proliferation.

Truly, the effect of isoflavones in target breast cancer would vary from being antiestrogenic to weakly estrogenic depending to the high or low endogenous estrogen levels in patients.

Further more, in compared to the soybean-derived protease inhibitor Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), is currently showing great promise as a novel cancer chemopreventive agent and 7 protease inhibitor concentrates (PIC) isolated from various leguminous sources (including soybean)to evaluate the effects of PIC on the proliferation of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, application of chickpea PIC demonstrated a significantly inhibited viability of the cancer cell line at concentration doses of 25-400 μg/ml.

Protease inhibitors are class of anti viral medicine with function binding to viral proteases to prevent replication.

Finally, although epidemiological studies suggest that isoflavones can decrease breast cancer risk and increase survival of breast cancer patients but the University of Houston has raised several questions of the results by stating, "the effects of isoflavones on mammary gland stem cells during different periods of life need to be defined to identify windows of time in which isoflavones can have positive or negative effects on cancer prevention. Investigations of the effect of isoflavones on breast cancer stem cells would increase our knowledge of whether isoflavones are beneficial or not to cancer patients. Lastly, the possibility that isoflavones have different effects on breast cancer risks between different ethnic groups with different genetic backgrounds needs to be taken into account".

Taken together, chickpeas phytochemical may have a potential effect in reduced risk and treatment of breast cancer, but a complex and large sample size with different ethnic groups with different genetic backgrounds study are necessary to reaffirm this viability.

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Author biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L. sprouts induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by Chen H1, Ma HR, Gao YH, Zhang X, Habasi M, Hu R, Aisa HA.(PubMed)
(2) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and other plant-derived protease inhibitor concentrates inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro by Magee PJ1, Owusu-Apenten R, McCann MJ, Gill CI, Rowland IR.(PubMed)
(3) Does consuming isoflavones reduce or increase breast cancer risk? byBondesson M1, Gustafsson JA.(PubMed)

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