Chickpea may have a profound effect in activated gut microbiota host energy homeostasis in modulated risk of metabolic syndrome, some studies suggested.
Garbanzo bean also known as chickpea is an edible legume of genus Cicer and the family Fabaceae, high in protein and minerals. It is one of the earliest cultivated vegetables, native to Middle East.
Metabolic syndrome is a set of conditions, including high blood pressure and blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels which may contribute to the onset of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
The effect of chickpea in reduced risk of metabolic syndrome has been investigated extensively through numbers of aspect and mechanism.
α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) isolated from fermentable soluble fibers extracted of chickpea on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome and gut bacterial dysbiosis in animal model, displayed a significant improvement of parameters which have a direct influence to the initiate risk of CVD, including deceased levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycated serum protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of mice in compared to control after 4 weeks of experiment.
Injection of α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) showed a restrictive activity in reduced high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in inhibited the content of all bacteria, such as Bacteroides in breaking down food and producing valuable nutrients and energy that the body needs and Lactobacillus with function in glucose metabolism and protect against over growth of pathogens in the digestive tract.
These illustration indicated that α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) have a potential used as a probiotic to improve digestive health by balancing the levels of gut bacteria through colonic fermentation.
Furthermore, the extract also induced the production of short-chain fatty acids such as propionic acid with function in reduced acidity and butyric acids with function in reduced inflammation and improve overall gastrointestinal health through colonic bacterial fermentation.
Short-chain fatty acids has been extensively promoted as prebiotics and probiotics with an aimed at improving colonic and systemic health.
The finding information suggested that α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) isolated from fermentable soluble fibers extracted of chickpea may affect the metabolic disorders and gut bacterial ecosystem in a positive way.
Additionally, 14 days of 2 single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, 88 overweight adults [50% men and 50% women; 18-60 y old; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25-28] were supplemented for 14 d with tea contained α-GOSs with different α-GOS dosages (6, 12, or 18 g α-GOSs/d), formulas (12 g α-GOSs/d with >80% of molecules with a degree of polymerization of 2, 3, or 4), or a control substance (glucose syrup), also suggested that regardless to the composition, tea contained α-GOSs treatment group demonstrated a significant in reduced appetite, reduced energy intake during lunch and dinner in compared to control.
In other word, injection of α-GOSs daily and regularly may have a long-term effect in induced weight loss and mitigated metabolic disorders.
Similarly, the investigation of the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), in compared with counselling to reduce energy intake by 2093 kJ/d (500 kcal/d), on risk factors of the MetSyn in two groups (nineteen and twenty-one subjects, respectively) of overweight or obese (mean BMI 32·8 kg/m2) adults
2017], also found that at the end of the experiment, both diets expressed a reductions in energy intake, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c) and glucose AUC and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) following a 75 g oral glucose load at weeks 1 and 8 with levels of HDL and C-peptide increased by 4·5 and 12·3 %, respectively in compared to decreased by 0·8 and 7·6 %, respectively, in the energy-restricted group.
C-peptide is a proinsulin molecule produced by the beta cells in the pancreas.
Interestingly, insulin area under curve was found to decrease in both females and males on the energy-restricted diet by 24·2 and 4·8 %, respectively, but on the pulse diet it decreased by 13·9 % in females and increased by 27·3 % in males.
After taking into account of other con founder, Dr.Mollard RC, the lead author said, "frequent consumption of pulses,...reduced risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and these effects were equivalent, and in some instances stronger, than counselling for dietary energy reduction".
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Effects of α-Galactooligosaccharides from Chickpeas on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Mice by Dai Z1, Lyu W2, Xie M1, Yuan Q1, Ye H1, Hu B1, Zhou L1, Zeng X1.(PubMed)
(2) Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults by Mollard RC1, Luhovyy BL, Panahi S, Nunez M, Hanley A, Anderson GH.(PubMed)
(3) α-Galacto-oligosaccharides Dose-Dependently Reduce Appetite and Decrease Inflammation in Overweight Adults by Morel FB1, Dai Q2, Ni J3, Thomas D4, Parnet P5, Fança-Berthon P6.(PubMed)