Monday, 18 December 2017

Food Therapy: Lentils (Legume) Ameliorated Risk of Hyperlipidemia

Kyle J. Norton

Intake of lentils daily and regularly may have a profound effect in maintaining and normalizing right levels of cholesterol through expression of ratio of high-density lipoprotein (HDL/total cholesterol number(overall amount of cholesterol found in the blood).
Lentil, a type of pulse or tiny legumes which can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and a bushy annual plant of genus Lens the Fabaceaefamily, native to Middle East. a medical condition chreacterized by abnormal high blood cholesterol in the blood stream.

The evaluation of the effect of lentils in risk of high blood cholesterol was found to associate  to certain mechanisms through numbers of aspects.

According to the study of the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), compared with counselling to reduce energy intake by 2093 kJ/d (500 kcal/d), on risk factors of the metabolic syndrome in two groups (nineteen and twenty-one subjects, respectively) of overweight or obese (mean BMI 32·8 kg/m2) adults, at week 8, after a 75 g oral glucose load, measurement of HDL increased by 4·5 in the pulse group, in compared to decreased of 0·8 in energy group.

Further more, treatment of pulse diet also expressed a significant improvement in restriction of energy intake to promote weight loss and reduced weight circumference which have been considered as some risk factors in facilitated abnormal blood cholesterol in over weight and obese subjects.

According to general belief, weight loss in obese and over weight adults plays an important role in reduced risk of having high LDL (low density lipoprotein) bad cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and low HDL (high density lipoprotein) good cholesterol.

Additionally, in the investigation of hydroalcoholic extract isolated from lentils to examine the hypocholesterolemic action in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model for 70 days, by studying the plasma cholesterol level and the concentration of bile acids in the feces, researchers found that at day 71, injection of hydroalcoholic extract demonstrated a strong effect in decreased  cholesterol level of rats by 16.8%, in compared to non treatment group.

Further analysis also suggested that the extract also increased the level of bile acids, metabolic regulators of lipid, in the feces of rats which is an indication of decreased LDL-cholesterol concentration, and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration.

Dr, Färkkilä M, the lead author in the study of lipid metabolism in bile acid malabsorption said,
"Enhanced cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in ileal dysfunction is reflected by raised concentrations of plasma cholesterol precursors, especially lathosterols, which can be used as an indicator of increased bile acid loss to faeces".

More interestingly, the measured and compared the metabolic variables, weight loss and inflammatory marker concentrations of 30 obese subjects (17 M/13F; BMI: 32.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2); 36 ± 8 years) randomly assigned to either (4 weeks): Calorie-restricted legume-free diet (Control: C-diet) or calorie-restricted legume-based diet (L-diet, different cooked-servings (160-235 g) of lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans) conducted by the University of Navarra indicated that group treated with L-diet displayed a significant effect in induction of weight loss, reduced both total and LDL cholesterol levels in compared to Calorie-restricted legume-free diet control group.

The weight loss in the treatment group also demonstrated a decrease concentration levels of CRP and C3 which may be an indication of lower inflammatory process in facilitated lipid deposit in the inner wall of arteries induced by oxidative stress through stimulation by reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Dr. Hermsdorff HH, the lead author at the University of Navarra said, " the reduction (%) in CRP concentrations was positively associated with decreases (%) in systolic BP and total cholesterol concentration specifically in the L-diet group, independent from weight loss (p < 0.05)". t

Taken together, lentils and other species of legume may be considered as functional foods in reduced ricks of hyperlipidemia, through lowering levels of low density lipoprotein(LDL), increasing levels of  high density lipoprotein(HDL) and improving ratio of high-density lipoprotein (HDL/total cholesterol number, particularly in inducing weight loss in over weight and obese population.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Evaluation of the hypocholesterolemic effect and prebiotic activity of a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) extract by Micioni Di Bonaventura MV1, Cecchini C2,3, Vila-Donat P4, Caprioli G4, Cifani C1, Coman MM2,3, Cresci A2,3, Fiorini D5, Ricciutelli M4, Silvi S2,3, Vittori S4, Sagratini G4.(PubMed)
(2) Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults by Mollard RC1, Luhovyy BL, Panahi S, Nunez M, Hanley A, Anderson GH.(PubMed)
(3) A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolicfeatures in overweight/obese subjects by Hermsdorff HH1, Zulet MÁ, Abete I, Martínez JA.(PubMed)
(4) Lipid metabolism in bile acid malabsorption by Färkkilä M1, Miettinen TA.(PubMed)

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