Saturday, 16 December 2017

Food Therapy: Chick (Garden) Peas Inhibited Platelet Aggregation in Ameliorated Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Kyle J. Norton

Methanolic extract of Chick (Garden) Peas may have a potential effect in decreased platelet aggregation and inhibited thrombus formation, thus improving blood circulation for prevention of cardiovascular disease, some scientists suggested.

Garbanzo beans also known as chickpea is an edible legume of genus Cicer and the family Fabaceae, high in protein and minerals. It is one of the earliest cultivated vegetable, native to Middle East.

Inflammation is a natural process of immune defense against infection caused by injure through removal of  injurious agents, necrosed cells and tissues.

Evaluation of pea family effects in  reduced platelet aggregation for prevention of cardiovascular disease have been found to associated to numbers of mechanisms involved many aspects.

Methanolic extract isolated from garden pea  and Desi chickpea demonstrated an inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) expression in induction of  platelet aggregation (IC50 = 35 microg/mL)

Arachidonic acid, an omega-6 unsaturated fatty acid with function in growth and repair of muscle  tissue is also important as an proinflammatory and immunosupportive substance in response to actute and chronic tissue damage.

Several reports have suggested that arachidonic acid induced expression of platelet aggregation by mediators thromboxane A2 and/or prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) in signalling expression of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptor occupation.

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a type of thromboxane with function in stimulation of production of new platelets to induce platelet aggregation.

Prostaglandin H2 is a type of prostaglandin acted as mediators involved in physiological processes, including platelet aggregation, muscle movement and inflammation.

Further differentiated the other effects of methanolic extract isolated from garden pea  and Desi chickpea on platelet aggregation, showed that the extract isolated from garden pea  displayed a positive inhibition of platelet activating factor (PAF)(IC50 = 38 microg/mL) in a dose dependent fashion, in induction of platelet aggregation, but this action was not found in Desi chickpea extract.

Platelet-activating factor (PAF), is a lipid mediator with function in exhibited expression of platelet aggregation, immune response and inflammation. 

Interestingly, the methanolic extract isolated from Kabuli chickpea also expressed a strong platelet aggregation  effect without activation of either arachidonic acid (AA) or latelet-activating factor (PAF) expressions.

The findings suggested that there must exist other mechanisms in reduced platelet aggregation, other than inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) activities  by the testing extract isolated from the above members of pea family.

Further differentiation showed that methanolic extract isolated from the pea family also inhibited platelet aggregation through endothelial cells COX-2 lining the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels in production of platelet PGE2 precipitated by inflammatory cytokine expression during the acute phase of tissue damage.

COX-2 is an enzyme with function in response for inflammation and pain.

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) is also released by blood vessel walls with function in response to infection or inflammation.

Indeed, the extract displayed a strongly inhibited effect at dose of concentration 20 microg/mL in lower the levels of synthesis of PGE2  by 92%,  87% and 65% in extract of Garden pea, Desi chickpea and Kabuli chickpea, respectively, according to COX-2 essay. 

Taken together, peas family including Garden pea, Desi chickpea and Kabuli chickpea could be useful as natural anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory whole foods. People who are in high risk of CVD due to platelet effect may want to add a portion of chickpeas into their daily diet.

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Author biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Platelet aggregation and anti-inflammatory effects of garden pea, Desi chickpeaand Kabuli chickpea by Zia-ul-Haq M1, Khan BA, Landa P, Kutil Z, Ahmed S, Qayum M, Ahmad S.(PubMed)

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