Monday, 28 October 2013

@Healthy Foods - Lentils (Lens)

Lentil is a type of pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of genus Lens the Fabaceae family, native to Middle East. It is also tiny legumes that can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and fiber.

Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
6. Folate (Vitamin B9)
7. Magnesium
8. Phosphorus
9. Potassium
10. Copper
11. Manganese
12. Iron
13. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Improve diet qualityThe US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid guidelines: Dietary intake data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults aged > or =19 years was used. Results show that on any given day only 7.9% of adults are consuming dry beans and peas; Mexican Americans or other Hispanics are more likely to be consumers than nonconsumers. Consuming approximately (1/2) c dry beans or peas resulted in higher intakes of fiber, protein, folate, zinc, iron, and magnesium with lower intakes of saturated fat and total fat. These data support the specific recommendation for dry beans and peas as part of the overall vegetable recommendation. Increased consumption of dry beans and peas-economical and nutrient-rich foods-could improve the diet quality of Americans, according to "Consumption of dry beans, peas, and lentils could improve diet quality in the US population" by Mitchell DC, Lawrence FR, Hartman TJ, Curran JM.(a)

2. Colon Cnacer

In the investigation of lentils (Lens culinaris L)'s bioactive compounds and theirs the prevention of cancer found that Our findings indicate that consumption of lentils might be protective against colon carcinogenesis and that hydrothermal treatment resulted in an improvement in the chemopreventive potential for the whole lentils, according to "Chemopreventive effect of raw and cooked lentils (Lens culinaris L) and soybeans (Glycine max) against azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci" by Faris MA, Takruri HR, Shomaf MS, Bustanji YK.(b)

3. Antioxidant capacity
In the assessment of cooked seeds of three pulses (black bean, chickpea and lentil) and theirs antioxidant effects found that Black beans and lentils had higher polyphenols content than chickpeas. The indigestible fraction (IF) of black beans exhibited the lowest and chickpeas the highest associated polyphenols content. Condensed tannins were retained to some extent in the IF that exhibited significant antioxidant capacity, according to "In vitro fermentability and antioxidant capacity of the indigestible fraction of cooked black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.)" by Hernández-Salazar M, Osorio-Diaz P, Loarca-Piña G, Reynoso-Camacho R, Tovar J, Bello-Pérez LA.(c)

4. Gglycaemic responses
In the investigation of
pasta and tomato sauce and 44 % of energy from: (1) chickpeas, (2) lentils, (3) navy beans or (4) yellow peas and thier association with glycaemic responses found that consumption of pulses in a high-glycaemic meal contributes to earlier satiation, lower BG following the meal and after a later meal, but these effects are specific to pulse type and cannot be explained by their glycaemic properties alone, according to "The acute effects of a pulse-containing meal on glycaemic responses and measures of satiety and satiation within and at a later meal" by Mollard RC, Zykus A, Luhovyy BL, Nunez MF, Wong CL, Anderson GH.(d)

5. Obesity

In the identification of increased consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils and their effect in weigh management found that there is some indication of a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed in this area, particularly those that are longer term (≥1 y), investigate the optimal amount of pulses to consume for weight control, and include behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption, acccording to "Pulse consumption, satiety, and weight management" by McCrory MA, Hamaker BR, Lovejoy JC, Eichelsdoerfer PE.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration

1. Molybdenum
Molybdenum beside plays an important role in kidneys waste processing (according to the article "Molybdenum" posted in American cancer Society), it also acts as a cofactor in carbohydrate metabolism and detoxification (according to the article of "Molybdenum Aids Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism", posted in Nutra Legacy)

2. Folate
Folate beside is important for the production of red blood cells, and for the proper development of the brain, it also helps to enhance the replication and maintain DNA and RNA, thus reducing the risk of birth defects, in a study of "Go folic!" by Bland J., posted in PubMed, researchers state that in order to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs), and proactively prevent new cases of spina bifida and hydrocephalus, it is essential that women take folic acid well before becoming pregnant. Through the use of social networks, and the voice of healthcare professionals, it is hoped that more women than ever before will receive the Go Folic! message and start taking the 400mcg/day required to ensure the development of a healthy brain and spine.

3. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prevent and treat Diabetes. As Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(1)

4. Tryptophan
Tryptophan in dried bean is not only essential for normal growth and balanced out nitrogen in the body, it is also an antioxidant that helps to enhances the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radical and foreign invasion, thus reducing the risk of inflammation and infection. By enhancing the immune system, trytophan also inhiblts the cancer cells growth, in a study of "Uveal melanoma expression of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase: establishment of an immune privileged environment by tryptophan depletion." by Chen PW, Mellon JK, Mayhew E, Wang S, He YG, Hogan N, Niederkorn JY., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Addition of the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl dl-tryptophan significantly diminished kynurenine levels in IFN-gamma treated uveal melanoma cell cultures...... IFN-gamma inducible IDO upregulation by primary and metastatic uveal melanoma may generate a local immune privileged microenvironment to promote escape from T cell-mediated immune surveillance.

5. Manganese
Manganese in dried peas not only is a processor for the metabolizing of glucose and carbohydrates, it also plays an important role as part of the natural antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), that helps to fight the damage caused by free radicals, according to the study of "Regulation of Manganese Antioxidants by Nutrient Sensing Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae" by Reddi AR, Culotta VC., posted in PubMed, researchers found that loss of either of these upstream kinase sensors dramatically inhibited the potency of Mn as an antioxidant. Downstream of Rim15p are transcription factors Gis1p and the redundant Msn2/Msn4p pair that typically respond to nutrient and stress signals. Both transcription factors were found to modulate the potency of the Mn-antioxidant but in opposing fashions: loss of Gis1p was seen to enhance Mn-antioxidant activity whereas loss of Msn2/4p greatly suppressed it. Our observed roles for nutrient and stress response kinases and transcription factors in regulating the Mn-antioxidant underscore its physiological importance in aerobic fitness.

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Atherosclerosis
Since lentils contains high amount of fiber that can help in binding the bad cholesterol and reduce the liver in cholesterol production, thus improving the heart in blood circulation and reducing the risk of atherosclerosis, By binding to the bile acids and expelling them as a waste product, fiber helps to remove bad cholesterol, according to the study of "Hypolipidemic effect of fresh Triticum aestivum (wheat) grass juice in hypercholesterolemic rats" by Kothari S, Jain AK, Mehta SC, Tonpay SD., posted in PubMed (

2. Blood sugar
Fiber in lentil not only reduces the risk of constipation by helping the large intestine in waste removal (according to the study of "A controlled, randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of a supplement of cocoa husk that is rich in dietary fiber on colonic transit in constipated pediatric patients" by Castillejo G, Bulló M, Anguera A, Escribano J, Salas-Salvadó J.). it also improves the insulin production of pancreas by releasing the sugar into blood stream slowly. Prolong production of insulin can cause stress to the pancreas, leading to the risk of type II diabetes., according to the study of "Influence of dietary fibre intake on diabetes and diabetic retinopathy: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study (SN-DREAM, report 26)" by Ganesan S, Raman R, Kulothungan V, Sharma T., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The presence of diabetic retinopathy, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy and microalbuminuria were also associated with lower dietary fibre intake.

3. Folate
Beside it is essential vitamin in synthesis of DNA (According to the study of "Folate stimulation of wound DNA synthesis" by Zhang XJ, Chinkes DL, Herndon DN., Posted in PubMed (, amino acid metabolism (accprding to the study of "Assessment of vitamin B-12, folate, and vitamin B-6 status and relation to sulfur amino acid metabolism in neonates" Minet JC, Bissé E, Aebischer CP, Beil A, Wieland H, Lütschg J.Posted in PubMed (, etc. it also plays an important in regulating cells division and replication, thus reducing the risk of improper growth of cells, leading to tumors and cancers, according to the study of "Folate and cancer: how DNA damage, repair and methylation impact on colon carcinogenesis" by Duthie SJ., posted in PubMed (, reseachers concluded that Folate maintains genomic stability by regulating DNA biosynthesis, repair and methylation. Folate deficiency induces and accelerates carcinogenesis by perturbing each of these processes.

4. Weigh loss
High amount of fiber in lentil helps to make the digestive system feeling fullness, thus reducing the risk of craving, leading to weight loss for some people, according to the study of Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations, conduceted by Provident Clinical Research, Glen Ellyn, posted in PubMed (

5. Copper
Copper is best known for its function in regulating the proper growth, utilization of iron, it is also a strong antioxidant, aiding the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, and preventing oxidation in the cell membrane, according to the article of antioxidant cancer and diseases, posted in Medical Advisor Journals, in other antioxidants, 1. Copper
6. Omega 3 fatty acid
The omega 3 fatty not only helps to maintain the ratio of Omega 6 fatty acid that reduces the risk of over production of prostaglandin hormones (according to the study of "Effect of Clupeonella grimmi (anchovy/kilka) fish oil on dysmenorrhoea" by Moghadamnia AA, Mirhosseini N, Abadi MH, Omranirad A, Omidvar S., posted in PubMed (, it also helps to prevent of oxidation bad cholesterol (LDL), thus reducing the risk of free radical cause of cardiovascular disease, according to the study of "Fish oil for the treatment of cardiovascular disease" by Weitz D, Weintraub H, Fisher E, Schwartzbard AZ., posted in PubMed, (

7. Etc.

Side effect
1. Oxalates
Since lentil contains measurable amount of axalates, it can cause the forming of kidney stone.
2. Etc.

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