Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - #Ginseng, Asian (Panax ginseng) and Ginseng, North America

Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root).

A. Ginseng Asia
Ginseng Asia is also known as Panax ginseng. Since it has been grown in the cold places in the Asian, Asian ginseng is considered as yang promoting, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
The herb has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to promote yang and to improve cardiac function, short of breath, blood pressure. Panax ginseng can generates fluids and reduce thirst, to treat anxiety, insomnia, dizziness/headache, forgetfulness, impotence, diabetes, bleeding in the vagina not during period, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Erectile dysfunction
Panax ginseng has been used as yang promoting herb as it improves sexual desire, treat erectile dysfunction and impotent over thousands of year. In the investigation of the effectiveness of
Korean ginseng and mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) for treating erectile dysfunction, found that A total of 86 patients completed 8 weeks of treatment. The scores on the five domains of the IIEF after medication were significantly higher than the baseline scores in the group treated with TMGE (P<0.05), whereas no significant improvement was observed in the placebo group (P>0.05). Erectile function and overall satisfaction scores after medication were significantly higher in the TMGE group than in the placebo group (P<0.05). Erectile function of patients in the TMGE-treated group significantly improved, suggesting that TMGE could be utilized for improving erectile function in male patients, according to "Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction"by Kim TH, Jeon SH, Hahn EJ, Paek KY, Park JK, Youn NY, Lee HL.(1)

2. Antioxidant activity
In the evaluation of the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the rhizomes of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer and its antioxidant effect found that antioxidant activity exhibited Panax japonicus polysaccharides (PJP) had a good potential for antioxidant, according to "Optimization of polysaccharides from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer by RSM and its anti-oxidant activity" by Wang R, Chen P, Jia F, Tang J, Ma F.(2)

3. Antipsychotic effect
In the investigation of Panax quinquefolium (PQ) and its significant neuroactive properties for its antipsychotic potential found that PQ blocked ketamine induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance paradigm. In the chronic studies, PQ reduced the ketamine induced enhanced immobility in the forced swim test and did not show extra-pyramidal side effects in bar test and wood block test of catalepsy. These behavioural effects were compared with standard drugs haloperidol and clozapine. Further PQ reduced DA and 5-HT content after chronic treatment, but not after acute administration, according to "Evaluation of the Antipsychotic Potential of Panax quinquefolium in Ketamine Induced Experimental Psychosis Model in Mice" by Chatterjee M, Singh S, Kumari R, Verma AK, Palit G.(3)

4. Anti-cancers
In the identification of Panax ginseng as a herb used in Asia for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, including cancer found that the results clearly indicate the structure-related activities in which the compound with less polar chemical structures possesses higher cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells, according to "The in vitro structure-related anti-cancer activity of ginsenosides and their derivatives" by Dong H, Bai LP, Wong VK, Zhou H, Wang JR, Liu Y, Jiang ZH, Liu L.(4)

5. Neuroprotective effect
In the analyzing Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and its beneficial effects in cerebral ischemia and inhibition of the inflammatory cascade in sepsis found that Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) partially inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway from 6 h to 72 h after ischemia and reperfusion onset, as determined by the expression of total and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, inhibitor protein of κB (IκB)-α, and IκB-kinase complex (IKK)-α. All these results indicate that suppression of local inflammation after cerebral ischemia might be one mechanism that contributes to the neuroprotection of GRb1, according to "Suppression of local inflammation contributes to the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 in rats with cerebral ischemia" by Zhu J, Jiang Y, Wu L, Lu T, Xu G, Liu X.(5)

6. Immunological activities
In the study of Water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (designated as WGOS) with a degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 10 were obtained from warm-water extract of Panax ginseng roots, found that WGOS were potent B and T-cell stimulators and WGOS-1 has the highest immunostimulating effect on lymphocyte proliferation among those purified fractions. It is hoped that the WGOS will be developed into functional food or medicine, according to "Structural characterization and immunological activities of the water-soluble oligosaccharides isolated from the Panax ginseng roots" by Wan D, Jiao L, Yang H, Liu S.(6)

7. Breast cancer
In the investigation the anticancer effects of warming and relieving cold phlegm formula (, WRCP), a mixture composed of the aqueous extracts of Aconitum carmichaeli, Rhizoma bolbostemmatis, Phytolacca acinosa, Panax notoginseng, and Gekko swinhonis G ū enther, combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on human breast cancer found that the treatment combination of WRCP and 5-FU was more effective in the inhibition of tumor growth than either agent alone and may have potentially additional benefit in improving the general condition and immunity of the mice with human breast cancer cell implants, according to "Anticancer effects of 5-fluorouracil combined with warming and relieving cold phlegm formula on human breast cancer" by Wang XL, Ma F, Wu XZ(7)

8. Type 2 diabetes
In the researches of Red ginseng (RG, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and its effect for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) found that the evidence for the effectiveness of RG in controlling glucose in type 2 DM is not convincing. Few included studies with various treatment regimens prohibit definitive conclusions. More rigorous studies are needed to clarify the effects of RG on this condition, according to "Red ginseng for type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials" by Kim S, Shin BC, Lee MS, Lee H, Ernst E.(8)

9. Metabolic cardiovascular disease
In the identification of several traditional Chinese medicine and teirs effect on metabolic cardiovascular disease, authors emphasized that the relationship among axis of excessive ROS/RNS-mitochondrial dysfunction-apoptosis-atherosclerosis. They also introduce several traditional Chinese medicines such as Ophiopogon japonicus, butin, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Solanum lyratum and so on in the treatment of relevant diseases through anti-ROS/RNS mechanism. Moreover, the TCMs also can anti-cancer and anti-fatigue,which show the speciality of TCMs different from the single effect of classical western medicines, according to "[Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by excessive ROS/RNS-metabolic cardiovascular disease and traditional Chinese medicines intervention].[Article in Chinese]" by Zhang C, Liu J, Pan H, Yang X, Bian K.(9)

10. Prostate hyperplasia
in the demonstration of Panax ginseng's pharmacological activities on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) found that 20(S)-Rg3 downregulated AR by facilitating the degradation of AR protein. WKRG and 20(S)-Rg3 were found to have new pharmacological activities against testosterone-induced prostate overgrowth. Given that red ginseng has been used safely in Asia for 1000 years, red ginseng and 20(S)-Rg3 could be potential therapeutic regimens for treating BPH, according to "Red ginseng and 20(S)-Rg3 control testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia by deregulating androgen receptor signaling" by Bae JS, Park HS, Park JW, Li SH, Chun YS(10)

11. HL-60 cells
In the classification of Four new triterpene saponins, ginsenosides Rh (14)-Rh (17) ( 1- 4), along with two known compounds, 20( S)-ginsenoside Rg (2) and dammar-( E)-20(22),24-diene-3 β,6 α,12 β-triol, and theirs effect on HL-60 cells found that the isolated compounds were tested for IN VITRO cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells, according to "Four New Dammarane-Type Triterpene Saponins from the Stems and Leaves of Panax ginseng and Their Cytotoxicity on HL-60 Cells" by Li KK, Yao CM, Yang XW.(11)

12. Wound healing
In the investigation of herbal drugs (Panax ginseng, beta-sitosterol from Aloe vera, calycosin from Radix Astragali, and extracts from Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Angelica sinensis.) and theirs effect on wound healing indicated that the use of plants and their extracts as potential therapeutic agents with pro- or antiangiogenic activity. Since the anticancer and antiangiogenic properties of many phytomedicines have been amply reviewed elsewhere this paper will focus on the treatment of vascular insufficiency in wound healing, according to "Proangiogenic activity of plant extracts in accelerating wound healing - a new face of old phytomedicines" by Majewska I, Gendaszewska-Darmach E.(12)

13. Cardiovascular Disorders
In the evaluation of plethora of pharmacological properties of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) found that Experimental studies have revealed a number of beneficial properties of ginseng, particularly in the area of cardiac protection, where ginseng and ginsenosides have been shown to protect the ischaemic and reperfused heart in a variety of experimental models. Emerging evidence also suggests that ginseng attenuates myocardial hypertrophy, thus blunting the remodelling and heart failure processes. However, clinical evidence of efficacy is not convincing, likely owing primarily to the paucity of well designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials, according to "Therapeutic Potential of Ginseng in the Management of Cardiovascular Disorders" by Karmazyn M, Moey M, Gan XT.(13)

14. Atherosclerosis
In the association of the herbal remedies on the prevention and treatment of AS found that mixed herbal preparations with multiple active ingredients may be preferable for the prevention and treatment of AS. Further rigorously designed pharmacological evaluation and multi-centred clinical trials are warranted, according to "Herbal Remedies Supply a Novel Prospect for the Treatment of Atherosclerosis: A Review of Current Mechanism Studies" by Zeng Y, Song JX, Shen XC.(14)

15. Etc.

Side effects
1. The herb can cause tremors, nervousness, headache, vomiting, insomnia, nose bleeding, etc.
2. Please do not use Panax ginseng, if you have heart disease or taken heart problem medicine
3. Panax ginseng may interact with other medication, including aspirin, Warfarin/Coumadin, etc.
4. Do not use the herb if you are pregnant
5. Etc.

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B. Ginseng North America
North America Ginseng is also known as P. quinquefolius American ginseng (root), is considered as yin promoting, as the roots is growth from a hot area, according to traditional Chinese medicine. Ginseng North America has been used in TCM to quench thirst, heal deficiency of lungs and chronic cough and to treat tiredness and unrest, chronic fever, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Colorectal cancer
In the investigation of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L., Araliaceae) and its anti-cancer potentialfound that three genes were up-regulated (AKAPA8L, PMPCB and PDE5A) and three were down-regulated (PITPNA, DUS2L and RIC8A). Although further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action, our findings should expand the understanding of the molecular framework of American ginseng as an anti-cancer agent, according to "Characterization of gene expression regulated by American ginseng and ginsenoside Rg3 in human colorectal cancer cells" by Luo X, Wang CZ, Chen J, Song WX, Luo J, Tang N, He BC, Kang Q, Wang Y, Du W, He TC, Yuan CS.(a)

2. Cardiovascular disease
In the demonstration of emerging evidence suggests ginseng has therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disease found that ginseng treatment significantly decreased infarct size and myocardial apoptosis following I/R in WT mice, but not in either eNOS(-/-) mice or WT mice treated with LY294002. We conclude that ginseng treatment protects the heart from I/R injury via upregulation of eNOS expression. Our study suggests that ginseng may serve as a potential therapeutic agent to limit myocardial I/R injury, according to "North American ginseng protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase" by Wu Y, Lu X, Xiang FL, Lui EM, Feng Q.(b)

3. Pediatric upper respiratory tract infection
In the evaluation of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng root extract) standardized to contain 80% poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides and theirs effect on upper respiratory tract infections in childdren found that standard doses of ginseng were well tolerated and merit additional evaluation with regard to treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection, according to "Safety and tolerability of North American ginseng extract in the treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection: a phase II randomized, controlled trial of 2 dosing schedules" by Vohra S, Johnston BC, Laycock KL, Midodzi WK, Dhunnoo I, Harris E, Baydala L.(c)

4. Glycemia and insulinemia
In the assessment the evidence indicates that the glycemia-lowering effect of American ginseng root may be batch dependent. found that American ginseng decreased postprandial glycemia and insulinemia; however, 40% of the batches did not reduce glycemia with the anticipated magnitude, irrespective of their saponin composition, according to "Five batches representative of Ontario-grown American ginseng root produce comparable reductions of postprandial glycemia in healthy individuals" by
Dascalu A, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Stavro MP, Leiter LA, Arnason JT, Vuksan V.(d)

5. Etc.

Side effects
Similar to Panax ginseng


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