Thursday, 31 October 2013

Obesity and Rheumatoid Arthritis

A. Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

B. How do calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

C. Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined as a conditon of inflammation of the joints of which may also affects other tissues and organs, according to the statistic of article of Rheumatoid Arthritis of the arthritis society, about one out of every 100 Canadians has rheumatoid arthritis (RA). That’s about 300,000 Canadians and a leading cause of disability.

D. How Obesity associates with Rheumatoid Arthritis
1. According to the study of "Associations between body mass, radiographic joint damage, adipokines and risk factors for bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis" by Baker JF, George M, Baker DG, Toedter G, Von Feldt JM, Leonard MB.,posted in PubMed, researchers found that in the evaluating the association between BMI and radiographic joint damage (RJD) in RA.Methods,...Higher BMI was independently associated with less RJD and was greatest in participants with risk factors for bone loss. Future studies are needed to examine the associations between RJD, obesity, weight loss and osteoporosis.Link

2. In the abstract of study of "Radiographic joint damage in early rheumatoid arthritis is highly dependent on body mass index" by Westhoff G, Rau R, Zink A., posted in PubMed, researchers found that BMI provides a risk estimate of joint damage in RA patients. Further studies are needed to elucidate the association between BMI, RF, and joint damage in RA and the possible role of adipose tissue.

3. In the study of "Obesity, adipose tissue and rheumatoid arthritis: coincidence or more complex relationship?" by Derdemezis CS, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA, Kiortsis DN., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that it is also implicated in obesity, a low-grade inflammatory state, as well as inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease where anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokine balance is critical is critical.

4. According to the study of "Abnormal body composition phenotypes in Vietnamese women with early rheumatoid arthritis" by Dao HH, Do QT, Sakamoto J., posted in PubMed, researchers found that women with early RA had a significantly higher proportion of unhealthy body composition phenotypes, higher total and truncal FM and lower appendicular LM than controls. Disease activity and disability scores were associated with unhealthy body composition. These findings suggest that clinicians should encourage muscle strengthening and fat loss in RA patients to reduce their disability.

5. According to the abstract of the study of "Obesity in rheumatoid arthritis" by Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou A, Metsios GS, Koutedakis Y, Kitas GD, posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Obesity is a major threat for public health and its study has attracted significant attention in the general population, predominantly due to its association with significant metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In RA research, BMI is frequently reported as a demographical variable, but obesity, as such, has received little interest. This is surprising, in view of the clear associations of obesity with other arthritides, particularly OA, but also in view of the now-clear association of RA with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

6. Etc.

E. treatments of Obesity and Rheumatoid Arthritis
1. In a study of "Body composition phenotypes in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study of Caucasian female patients" by Santos MJ, Vinagre F, Canas da Silva J, Gil V, Fonseca JE., posted in PubMed, researchers found that women with SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus ) or RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) diagnosis are more likely to have abnormal body composition phenotype, with some differences existing between these two conditions. Changes in body composition are partly explained by the inflammatory burden of disease and its treatment.

2. According to the study of "Role of diet in rheumatic disease" by Li S, Micheletti R., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Millions of people suffer from rheumatic diseases such as gout, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. These can be incapacitating and detrimental to quality of life. Diet, nutrition, and weight loss have shown promise in alleviating some of this disease burden. These lifestyle changes may give patients a feeling of control and ownership over their disease as well as a nonpharmacologic means of treatment.

3. In a study of "What predicts obesity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? An investigation of the interactions between lifestyle and inflammation" by Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou A, Metsios GS, Smith JP, Panoulas VF, Douglas KM, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y, Kitas GD., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that inflammation does not seem to influence BMI and BF in RA. As in the general population, high levels of habitual physical activity associate with low BMI and BF in RA. Energy intake is a major determinant of being underweight in those who consume fewer calories. Further research is needed to investigate the suitability of exercise and diet modalities, and their effects on the body composition of RA patients.

4. Etc.

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