Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - #He Shou Wu (Polygonum multiflorum or Fallopia multiflora)

He Shou wu is also known as Chinese Knotweed, genus Fallopia, belonging to Polygonaceae, native to central and southern China. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine in treating hyperlipemia, neurasthenia, split personality, premature white hair, nerve injuries, skin wind rash, constipation, etc.

Health benefits
1. Hepatoprotection
In the evaluation of the water extracts (w/v:1/10) of Polygonum multiflorum(WEP) and its antioxidative property on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in rats found that WEP may be effective in attenuating liver damage by reducing lipid peroxidation as well as by positively modulating inflammation, according to "Hepatoprotection of emodin and Polygonum multiflorum against CCl(4)-induced liver injury" by Lee BH, Huang YY, Duh PD, Wu SC.(1)

2. Hyperlipidemia
In the assessment of Raw and processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) and its effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia or related diseases found that raw PMR might have more satisfactory effects in clinic treatment of NAFLD or hyperlipidemia characterized by the elevation of cholesterol than processed PMR, according to "Lipid regulation effects of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, its processed products and its major substances on steatosis human liver cell line L02" by Wang M, Zhao R, Wang W, Mao X, Yu J.(2)

3. Liver cancer
In the investigation of the water extracts of raw and processed Polygonum multiflorum (RWE or PWE) were obtained by boiling them in water and its effect on human liver cells found that 95% ethanol-eluted material of Polygonum multiflorum and emodin had a similar significant effect of S phase arrest and all could induce L02 cell apoptosis, according to "[Effects of extract of Polygonum multiflorum on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human liver cell line L02][Article in Chinese]" by Zhang RC, Liu B, Sun ZX, Xu DY.(3)

4. Cognitive disorders
In the observation of 15 herbs for the screening have been traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine or in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cognitive disorders clinically found that extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (root) can lower Aβ generation by modulating APP processing in the N2a-SwedAPP cell line. These results corroborate the traditional use of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (root) for the treatment of cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to "In vitro screening on amyloid precursor protein modulation of plants used in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese medicine for memory improvement" by Liu LF, Durairajan SS, Lu JH, Koo I, Li M.(4)

5. Breast cancer
In the study of The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and its effect on the proliferation of certain types of cancer cells found that PME inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and promoting cell apoptosis. The effects of PME on MCF-7 cells were associated with the modulation of the expression levels of proteins involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis. These data suggest that PME has promise as a treatment against breast cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells, according to "Anti-proliferative effect of an extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and the possible mechanisms" by Chen HS, Liu Y, Lin LQ, Zhao JL, Zhang CP, Jin JC, Wang L, Bai MH, Wang YC, Liu M, Shen BZ.(5)

6. Promoting hair growth
In the assessment of Polygonum multiflorum and it has traditionally been used for treating patients suffering from baldness and hair loss in East Asia effect found that Polygonum multiflorum extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in telogenic C57BL6/N mice. In Polygonum multiflorum extract treated group, we observed increase in the number and the size of hair follicles that are considered as evidence for anagen phase induction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh were observed in Polygonum multiflorum extract treated group compared to that in control group, according to "Topical application of Polygonum multiflorum extract induces hair growth of resting hair follicles through upregulating Shh and β-catenin expression in C57BL/6 mice" by Park HJ, Zhang N, Park DK.(6)

7. Antioxidant activities
In the comparison of the antioxidant activities of the extracts from Zhi-heshouwu and Heshouwu found that the extract from Zhi-heshouwu presented a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the extract from Heshouwu, with IC50 values of 0.43 mg/mL and 2.9 mg/mL, respectively (p < 0.05). The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the two were similar (IC50 0.98 mg/mL and 1.45 mg/mL, respectively; p > 0.05). 5-Hydroxymethyl-furfural, a main compound in the extract of Zhi-heshouwu, showed IC50 values for scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals of 1.6 mg/mL and 0.24 mg/mL, respectively, according to "In vitro antioxidant activities of maillard reaction products produced in the steaming process of Polygonum multiflorum root" by Liu Z, Liu Y, Chao Z, Song Z, Wang C, Lu A.(7)

8. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)
In the investigation of the protective effects of preconditioning human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside (PMS) under anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R), and the mechanism of protection found that PMS preincubation resulted in the enhancement of antioxidant activity and anti-lipid peroxidation. The NO/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling pathway was involved in the effect of PMS on HUVECs, according to "The protective effects of Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside preconditioning in an ischemia/reperfusion model of HUVECs" by Liu LP, Liao ZP, Yin D, Li WD, Liu D, Li Q, Huang QR, Yang YF, He M.(8)

9. Diabetes
In the analyzing 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG), an active component extract from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects found that the protective mechanisms of TSG on diabetic nephropathy are involved in the alleviation of oxidative stress injury and overexpression of COX-2 and TGF-β1, partially via activation of SIRT1, according to "Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats: involvement of SIRT1 and TGF-β1 pathway" by Li C, Cai F, Yang Y, Zhao X, Wang C, Li J, Jia Y, Tang J, Liu Q.(9)

10. Androgen-dependent diseases
In the observation of 50% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (Polygoni Multiflori Radix; Polygonaceae) and its effect on against androgen-dependent diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia found that although emodin showed considerably less potent inhibitory activity than riboflavin, the inhibitory activity of the compound was more potent than that of alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone), an anthraquinone-type positive control. Also, anthraquinone itself was substantially inactive against 5alpha-reductase, in dicating that the hydroxyl group on the structure of emodin is an important structural moiety for displaying inhibitory activity, according to "5alpha-reductase inhibitory components as antiandrogens from herbal medicine" by Cho CH, Bae JS, Kim YU.(10)

11. Alzheimer's disease (AD)
In the observation of the clinical effect of compound Polygonum multiflorum extract on Alzheimer's disease (AD) found that the total effective rate of 93.33% in the compound Polygonum multiflorum extract treatment group was better than 73.33% in the Chinese herb control group and 68.97% in the western medicine control group (P < 0.01), according to "[Effect of compound Polygonum multiflorum extract on Alzheimer's disease].[Article in Chinese]" by Chen L, Huang J, Xue L.(11)

12. Anti-HIV activities
In the classification of the 70 % EtOH extract of Polygonum cuspidatum and its inhibitory action against HIV-1-induced syncytium formation found that compounds 1, 13, 14, and 16 demonstrated fairly strong antiviral activity against HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects in C8166 lymphocytes at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with EC (50) values of 4.37 +/- 1.96 microg/mL, 19.97 +/- 5.09, 14.4 +/- 1.34 microg/mL, and 11.29 +/- 6.26 microg/mL and therapeutic index (TI) values of 8.12, > 10.02, > 13.89, and > 17.71, respectively, according to "Anti-HIV activities of the compounds isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum and Polygonum multiflorum" by Lin HW, Sun MX, Wang YH, Yang LM, Yang YR, Huang N, Xuan LJ, Xu YM, Bai DL, Zheng YT, Xiao K.(12)

13. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Overdose may be toxic and cause liver damage
2. The herb may cause irritation of or even damage to the digestive tract
3. Allergic effect
4. Do not take the herb in children or if you are pregnant without consulting with your related field specialist
5. Etc.

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