Thursday, 31 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - Khella (Ammi visnaga)

Khella is a f flowering plant in the genus Ammi, belonging to the family Apiaceae, native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as an anti-spasmodic and vasodilator agent and to treat angina, asthma, arteriosclerosis, kidney stones, enal colic, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity
In the investigation of 6-[(4-Methoxy/4,9-dimethoxy)-7-methylfurochromen-5-ylideneamino]-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-4-ones 1a,b were prepared by reaction of 6-amino-2-thiouracil with visnagen or khellin, found in Khella and theiranti-inflammatory and analgesic effects found that these compounds were also screened for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of them, particularly 3-7, exhibited promising activities, according to "Synthesis of new visnagen and khellin furochromone pyrimidine derivatives and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity" by Abu-Hashem AA, Youssef MM.(1)

2. Kidney stones
In the evaluation of whether oral administration of an aqueous extract prepared from the fruits of A. visnaga as well as two major constituents khellin and visnagin could prevent crystal deposition in stone-forming rats found that For KE, a reasonably good correlation was observed between the incidence of crystal deposition, the increase in citrate excretion and urine pH suggesting a mechanisms that may interfere with citrate reabsorption. In conclusion, our data suggest that KE and its compounds, khellin and visnagin, may be beneficial in the management of kidney stone disease caused by hyperoxaluria but that it is likely that different mechanism of action are involved in mediating these effects, according to "Prevention of renal crystal deposition by an extract of Ammi visnaga L. and its constituents khellin and visnagin in hyperoxaluric rats" by Vanachayangkul P, Chow N, Khan SR, Butterweck V.(2)

3. Vitiligo
In the classification of the efficacy of monochromatic excimer light 308 nm (MEL), both as a monotherapy and in combination with khellin 4% ointment in vitiligo found that The clinical response achieved in group I and II was higher compared with group III (control group) without showing significant differences. MEL 308 nm, alone and/or combined with khellin 4% offered encouraging results and it may be considered a valid therapeutic option worthy of consideration in the treatment of vitiligo, according to "Monochromatic excimer light 308 nm in monotherapy and combined with topical khellin 4% in the treatment of vitiligo: a controlled study" by Saraceno R, Nisticò SP, Capriotti E, Chimenti S.(3)

4. Anti cancers
In the study of Cytotoxic effect of five known compounds, khellin, berberine, lupeol, scopolin, rapanone, obtained from Colombian plants found that they may be an indicator of the potential anticancer activity of these compounds. Berberine and rapanone presented interesting cytotoxicity, according to "Cytotoxic activity of five compounds isolated from Colombian plants" by Cordero CP, Gómez-González S, León-Acosta CJ, Morantes-Medina SJ, Aristizabal FA.(4)

5. Anti diabetes
In the assessment of the diabetes effect of furochromone-2,4-thiazolidinedione derivatives (VIIa-h) was prepared by Knoevenagel reaction of substituted-2,4-thiazolidinediones (VIa-h) with Khellin-2-carboxaldehyde (IV) found that compounds VIId and VIIf (at lower concentration; 1 microgram/ml) were able to increase insulin release in the presence of 5.6 mmol/l glucose. Both these compounds (VIId and VIIf) and VIIg increased glucose uptake in NIH-3T3 cells. Thus these 3 compounds should be tested for antidiabetic effects in vivo, according to "Synthesis and antidiabetic activity of some new furochromonyl-2,4-thiazolidinediones" by Bozdağ-Dündar O, Verspohl EJ, Waheed A, Ertan R.(5)

6. Melanogenesis
In the testing of the effect of khellin and KUVA on proliferation and melanogenesis of normal human melanocytes and Mel-1 melanoma cells in vitro. found that that khellin activated by UVA stimulates melanocyte proliferation and melanogenesis. Our results point to the possibility that current treatment regimens might be improved if reduced khellin doses are applied and suggest that improved delivery vehicles be tested, according to "KUVA (khellin plus ultraviolet A) stimulates proliferation and melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro" by Carlie G, Ntusi NB, Hulley PA, Kidson SH.(6)

7. Vasodilator effects
In the demonstration of Visnagin (4-methoxy-7-methyl-5H-furo [3,2-g][1]-benzopyran-5-one), an active principle of the fruit of Ammi visnaga and its vasodilator effects in rat vascular smooth muscle found that visnagin inhibited vascular smooth muscle contractility by acting at multiple sites. In the range of 10(-6) M to 5 x 10(-5) M visnagin appears to inhibit only the contractions mediated by Ca2+ entry through pathways with low sensitivity to classical Ca(2+)-entry blockers, i.e. agonist-, PMA- or mild depolarization-induced Ca2+ entry, according to "Vasodilator effects of visnagin in isolated rat vascular smooth muscle" by
Duarte J, Pérez-Vizcaíno F, Torres AI, Zarzuelo A, Jiménez J, Tamargo J.(7)

8. Skin diseases
In the evaluation of of the furochromone khellin was tested in Ames Salmonella strains using 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and 4,5', 8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) as positive controls, found that In strain TA102, khellin plus UVA treatment yielded a 2-fold increase in revertants/plate above the spontaneous background (79% survival). 8-MOP, however, used at a concentration 8-fold lower than khellin with a UVA dose 13-fold lower than khellin, yielded an increase in revertants/plate about 14-fold above background (66% survival) in the same strain. These data show that khellin has a weak photomutagenic potential and, along with the previously reported low photogenotoxic potential in eukaryotic cell systems, support the notion that khellin may be safer than bifunctional psoralens for clinical use, according to "Investigation of the mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium of the furochromone khellin, proposed as a therapeutic agent for skin diseases" by Riccio ML, Coratza G, Bovalini L, Martelli P.(8)

9. Hypocholesterolemic effect
In observation of Khellin (CAS 82-02-0) and methoxsalen (CAS 298-81-7) and theirs ability to modify serum lipoprotein cholesterol found that After four weeks at 0.45 mg/100 mg b.wt. for khellin and 0.27 mg/100 g b.wt. for methoxsalen, per day, both drugs significantly lowered low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were not changed. No apparent toxicity was observed as clinical chemistry parameters and body weights were not different compared to control values, according to "Hypocholesterolemic effect of khellin and methoxsalen in male albino rats" by el Naser H, Abdel Ghaffar E, Mahmoud SS.(9)

10. Angina pectoris
In the research of the effect of inhaling sodium cromoglycate on the development of chest pain in 8 patients with exercise-induced angina pectoris found that Khellin reduces angina, it is suggested that further studies should be performed to assess the effect of SCG at higher concentrations in the plasma, according to "The effect of sodium cromoglycate on the development of exercise-induced angina pectoris" by Hunter J, Collier JG, Fuller RW.(10)

11. Antibacterial and antiparasitic properties
In the testing the compounds of derivatives of visnaginone and khellinone and their antibacterial activity found that visnaginone and khellinone exerted antibacterial activity on gram negative and gram positive micro-organisms. Some of the compounds possess an antibacterial activity on some pathogenic bacteria, i.e. Brucella abortus, for which there is no remedy as yet. All the chalcones tested were inactive except Ib, which showed antiparasitic broad spectrum, according to "Antibacterial and anthelminthic properties of visnaginone and khellinone derivatives" by Ismail E, Tawfik AA, El-Ebrashi NM.(11)

12. Ventricular Arrhythmia
In the investigation of Various 5-aminobenzofuran derivatives from khellin and theirs potential antiarrhythmic activit, found that the two long-acting derivatives N-[4,7-dimethoxy-6-(2-pyrrolidinoethoxy)-5-benzofuranyl]-N'-methylurea (8j) and N-[4,7-dimethoxy-6-(2-piperidinoethoxy)-5-benzofuranyl]-N'-methylurea (8m) showed advantages when compared to quinidine and disopyramide and have been selected for further studies, according to "Synthesis and antiarrhythmic activity of new benzofuran derivatives" by
Bourgery G, Dostert P, Lacour A, Langlois M, Pourrias B, Tisne-Versailles J.(12)

13. Etc.

Side effects
1. The herb may cause allergic effects
2. Overdoses may cause gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea, vomiting.
3. Khella may interact with other medication, including antihypertensives
4. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist
5. Etc.

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