Wednesday, 30 October 2013

#Obesity and Artheroclerosis

A. Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

B. How to calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

C. Artheroclerosis, also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease is defined as a condition of thickening of the arterial wall as a result of plague accumulation due to building up of fat and cholesterol.

D. How Obesity associates with Artheroclerosis
1. In a study of "
[Left ventricular hypertrophy and thickening of common carotid artery wall in men aged 40 - 54 years with I degree arterial hypertension]." [Article in Russian] by Grigoricheva EA, Sorokin AV, Korovina OV, Pestova DL., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Formation of left ventricular hypertrophy was related to parameters of 24 hour blood pressure monitoring, arterial hypertension in brothers and sisters, body weight, and duration of obesity. Significant medium power relation was obtained between tension of endothelial system of hemostasis (protein C) and severity of left ventricular hypertrophy (correlation coefficient - 0,3). Age, heredity, low density lipoprotein, cholesterol, uric acid level mattered for IMT increase.

2. According to the study of "High rate of increased carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerotic plaques in Chinese asymptomatic subjects with central obesity" by Ko GT, Chow CC, Leung G, Au-Yeung TW, Chan WB, Lam CS, Lo M, Lee KK., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that among Hong Kong Chinese asymptomatic subjects with central obesity, there was a high rate of CVD risk factors. We found that 19% of these subjects had carotid atherosclerotic plaques and 10% of them had abnormal IMT (>0.9 mm). Carotid IMT study may serve as an appropriate screening tool to diagnose atherosclerosis in the centrally obese middle-aged population.

3. In the study of "Obesity, atherosclerosis and the vascular endothelium: mechanisms of reduced nitric oxide bioavailability in obese humans" by
I L Williams, S B Wheatcroft, A M Shah and M T Kearney, posted in International Journals of Obesity, researchers wrote in abstract that it is now well established that obesity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery atherosclerosis. The maintenance of vascular homeostasis is critically dependent on the continued integrity of vascular endothelial cell function. A key early event in the development of atherosclerosis is thought to be endothelial cell dysfunction.

4. According to the study of "Body mass index classification misses subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk factors related to elevated adiposit" by J Gómez-Ambrosi, C Silva, J C Galofré, J Escalada, S Santos, D Millán, N Vila, P Ibañez, M J Gil, V Valentí, F Rotellar, B Ramírez, J Salvador and G Frühbeck, posted in International Journals of Obesity, researchers concluded that Given the elevated concentrations of cardiometabolic risk factors reported herein in non-obese individuals according to BMI but obese based on body fat, the inclusion of body composition measurements together with morbidity evaluation in the routine medical practice both for the diagnosis and the decision-making for instauration of the most appropriate treatment of obesity is desirable.

5. Etc.

E. Treatments of Obesity and Artheroclerosis
1. According to the study of "Acute effects of epigallocatechin gallate from green tea on oxidation and tissue incorporation of dietary lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet" by M Friedrich, K J Petzke, D Raederstorff, S Wolfram and S Klaus, posted in International Journals of Obesity, researchers found that Anti-obesity effects of EGCG can be explained by a decreased food digestibility affecting substrate metabolism of intestinal mucosa and liver, leading to increased post-prandial fat oxidation and reduced incorporation of dietary lipids into tissues.

2. in P54 of Poster session III: Physical activity, exercise, nutrition and body composition, "The Effect of Long-term Taijiquan Practice on the Lipid Metabolism and Hormone Levels among Obese University Students" by HaiJun Zhang1, HaiLi Zhang and XiaoTao Guo. posted in International Journals of Obesity, researchers concluded that Long-term Taijiquan practice improves the components of blood-lipid, promotes the fat catabolism, adjusts the endocrine, and is helpful for health, fitness and losing weight.

3. In P63 of Poster session III: Physical activity, exercise, nutrition and body composition, "Effect of the Diabolo Exercise on Aged Women" by Xinbao Wang1 and Dawu Huang, posted in International Journals of Obesity, researchers found that Diabolo exercise has a good effect on reducing obesity and improving the function of the cardiovascular system for aged women.

4. Etc.

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