Tuesday, 29 October 2013

Dementia Treatments of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) In Conventional Medicine Perspective

I. Dementia
A.  Dementia
About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability that is severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people. American typical diet contains high amount of saturated and trans fat, artificial ingredients with less fruits and vegetable which can lead to dementia and other kind of diseases.

B. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
People who have eaten contaminated beef many years may be infected without even knowing it. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a quickly progressing and fatal disease that consists of dementia, muscle twitching and spasm. CJD is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia. Initially, individuals experience problems with muscular coordination; personality changes, including impaired memory, judgment, and thinking; and impaired vision. People with the disease also may experience insomnia, depression, or unusual sensations.(1).

II. Treatments of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
There is no treatment that can cure or control CJD. The available treatments are to relieve the symptoms and may help slow the disease.
1. Interleukins is defined as any of a group of naturally occurring proteins that mediate communication between cells. The set of interleukins stimulated by a specific infectious agent determines which cells will respond to the infection and influences some of the clinical manifestations of the disease(2). In a study of anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 4 and interleukin 10 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with CJD, patients with other dementia, and nondemented neurological patients and controls. Dr. Stoeck K, and the team at the University Hospital Göttingen, suggested that Interleukin 10 levels were significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of CJD patients (median, 9.8 pg/mL). The elevation was significant to other dementia (median, 7.9 pg/mL, P<.05), motoneuron disease (median, 7.9 pg/mL, P<.05), normal pressure hydrocephalus (median, 7.0 pg/mL, P<.05), and controls (median, 1.3 pg/mL, P<.001). Levels of interleukin 4 were significantly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with CJD (median, 26.4 pg/mL) compared with control subjects (median, 6.2 pg/mL, P<.001) and patients with a motoneuron disease (median, 10.5 pg/mL, P<.001)(3)

2. Other medication such as Quinacrine may have a potential in treating Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), according to a report in The Mail on Sunday, on Sunday 12 August 2001, entitled "Briton 'cured' in CJD drug trial".  The article described a 20-year-old female with variant CJD who was treated in a pioneer drug trial including Quinacrine in San Francisco and in whom the family reported neurological improvement.   A subsequent study on experimental animals showed no benefit from Quinacrine (Collins et al.). Further laboratory work by another scientific group (published in 2003, Barret et al.) only partly confirmed the Prusiner results and failed to show any benefit in experimental animals(4)

3. Medication to control aggressive and uncontrolled behavior, such asgamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine and serotonin may be helpful.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is progressing rapidly In the article of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the writer wrote that people with this condition may need help controlling unacceptable or dangerous behaviors. This involves rewarding positive behaviors and ignoring negative behaviors (when it is safe). They may also need help getting oriented to their surroundings. Getting legal help with advance directives, powers of attorney, and other legal actions early in the disorder can make it easier to make ethical decisions about the CJD patient's care(5). Since the outcome of the disease was very poor, most patient can not care for themselves in the period of less than 6 months after symptoms begin and most of them die in a short time, usually within 1 year or less.

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(1) http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cjd/detail_cjd.htm#186463058
(2) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290335/interleukin-IL
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216944
(4) http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/TREAT.htm
(5) http://www.hamiltonhealth.com/adm/content.asp?Path=HIE+Multimedia\1\000788.htm

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