Thursday, 31 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - Horehound (Marrubium vulgare)

Horehound is a flowering plant of the genus Marrubium, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to relieve pain and inflammation, aid digestion, soothe sore throats, and as a cold remedy.

Health effects
1. Colon cancer
In the investigation of Marubium vulgare (horehound) and Prunus serotina (wild cherry) extracts and theirs anti-inflammatory and exhibition of anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal cancer cells found that Both horehound and wild cherry extracts cause suppression of cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. We found that horehound extract up-regulates pro-apoptotic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) through transactivation of the NAG-1 promoter. In contrast, wild cherry extract decreased cyclin D1 expression and increased NAG-1 expression in HCT-116 and SW480 cell lines. Treatment with wild cherry extract resulted in the suppression of beta-catenin/T cell factor transcription, as assessed by TOP/FOP reporter constructs, suggesting that suppressed beta-catenin signaling by wild cherry extract leads to the reduction of cyclin D1 expression, according to "Anti-proliferative effect of horehound leaf and wild cherry bark extracts on human colorectal cancer cells" by Yamaguchi K, Liggett JL, Kim NC, Baek SJ.(1)

2. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties
in the study of antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines, found that that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+) pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil as anticancer agent. Further research is required to evaluate the practical values of therapeutic applications, according to "The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia" by Zarai Z, Kadri A, Ben Chobba I, Ben Mansour R, Bekir A, Mejdoub H, Gharsallah N.(2)

3. Antioxidant properties
In the observation of the isolation of six known compounds (a mixture of the isomers cyllenin A and 15-epi-cyllenin A, marrubiin, marrulactone, marrulibacetal and β-stigmasterol) and seven known phenolic compounds , apigenin and several 7-O-substituted derivatives (apigenin-7-O-β-neohesperidoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, terniflorin and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide) together with two phenylethanoid glucosides (acteoside and forsythoside B) from Marrubium deserti de Noé, found that some of the isolated compounds like phenylethanoid derivatives showed stronger antioxidant capacity than trolox and were also able to significantly inhibit β-galactosidase induction caused by the mutagen agent nitrofurantoin, according to "Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of compounds isolated from Marrubium deserti de Noé" by Zaabat N, Hay AE, Michalet S, Darbour N, Bayet C, Skandrani I, Chekir-Ghedira L, Akkal S, Dijoux-Franca MG.(3)

4. Gastroprotective activity
In the evaluation of assess the gastroprotective properties of the methanol extract and the diterpene marrubiin obtained from the leaves of M. vulgare found that there was also a significant increase in pH and mucus production in the groups treated with M. vulgare extract and marubiin. The results also demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by the extract and marubiin is related to the activity of nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls, which are important gastroprotective factors, according to "Gastroprotective activity of methanol extract and marrubiin obtained from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae)" by Paula de Oliveira A, Santin JR, Lemos M, Klein Júnior LC, Couto AG, Meyre da Silva Bittencourt C, Filho VC, Faloni de Andrade S.(4)

5. Antihepatotoxic activity
In the evaluation of The whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. and its p-menthane-5,6-dihydroxy-3-carboxylic acid and theirs antihepatotoxic activity found that The compound (1) also exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) by 40.16%, serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) by 35.06%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 30.51%, according to "A new monoterpene acid from Marrubium vulgare with potential antihepatotoxic activity" by Ahmed B, Masoodi MH, Siddique AH, Khan S.(5)

6. Antispasmodic effects
In the assessment of a chloroform extract obtained from M. globosum aerial parts and testing for its effect on reducing pain and smoothing muscle spasms found that among 12 isolated labdane diterpenoids, four new compounds, named 13-epicyllenin A (4), 13,15-diepicyllenin A (5), marrulibacetal (9), and marrulactone (11). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compound 9, which exerted antispasmodic activity, according to "Antispasmodic effects and structure-activity relationships of labdane diterpenoids from Marrubium globosum ssp. libanoticum" by Rigano D, Aviello G, Bruno M, Formisano C, Rosselli S, Capasso R, Senatore F, Izzo AA, Borrelli F.(6)

7. Antimicrobial activity
In the investigation of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Marrubium incanum Desr. (Lamiaceae), obtained by hydrodistillation and theirs antimicrobial activity found that the microbial growth inhibitory properties of the isolated essential oil were determined using the agar diffusion and broth microdilution method against seven bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, Micrococcus flavus ATCC 10240, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIMB 9111, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and two strains of the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10259 and ATCC24433). The essential oil showed activity against all the microorganisms tested, but differences in microbial susceptibility were registered.
according to "Composition and antimicrobial activity of Marrubium incanum Desr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil" by Petrović S, Pavlović M, Maksimović Z, Milenković M, Couladis M, Tzakouc O, Niketić M.(7)

8. Cytotoxicity and immunomodulating characteristics
In the identification of several diterpenoids from M. cylleneum and M. velutinum were tested for their cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines and their immunomodulating potential in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, found that a differential cytotoxicity of some compounds as well as their ability to improve selected lymphocyte functions, according to "Cytotoxicity and immunomodulating characteristics of labdane diterpenes from Marrubium cylleneum and Marrubium velutinum" by Karioti A, Skopeliti M, Tsitsilonis O, Heilmann J, Skaltsa H.(8)

9. Antioedematogenic effect
In the evaluation of the antioedematogenic profile of marrubiin (1), the main constituent of Marrubium vulgare and its antioedematogenic effect found that The results obtained for ID50 values (mg/kg, i.p.) and maximal inhibition (%) for the different phlogistic agents used were as follows: histamine (HIS, 13.84 mg/kg and 73.7%); (BK, 18.82 mg/kg and 70.0%); carrageenan (CAR, 13.61 mg/kg and 63.0%). The other phlogistic agonists, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), caused inhibition of less than 50%. In addition, (1) (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the OVO-induced allergic edema in actively sensitized animals (maximal inhibition 67.6+/-4%), according to "Antioedematogenic effect of marrubiin obtained from Marrubium vulgare" by Stulzer HK, Tagliari MP, Zampirolo JA, Cechinel-Filho V, Schlemper V.(9)

10. Cardiovascular diseases
In the elucidation of the beneficial properties of aqueous extracts of Marrubium vulgare (AEM) and its effect on cardiovascular disease found that that M. vulgare provides a source of natural antioxidants, which inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance reverse cholesterol transport and thus can prevent cardiovascular diseases development. These antioxidant properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL, according to "Marrubium vulgare extract inhibits human-LDL oxidation and enhances HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage" by Berrougui H, Isabelle M, Cherki M, Khalil A.(10)

11. Analgesic potential
In the investigation of Marrubiin, a furane labdane diterpene in Marrubium vulgare and its analgesic potential found that Marrubiinic acid showed better activity and excellent yield, and its analgesic effect was confirmed in other experimental models of pain in mice, suggesting its possible use as a model to obtain new and potent analgesic agents, according to "Analgesic potential of marrubiin derivatives, a bioactive diterpene present in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae)" by Meyre-Silva C, Yunes RA, Schlemper V, Campos-Buzzi F, Cechinel-Filho V.(11)

12. Antioedematogenic effect
In the evaluation of the antioedematogenic profile of marrubiin (1), the main constituent of Marrubium vulgare and its antioedematogenic effect found that Compound (1) was analyzed in a model of microvascular leakage in mice ears. The results show that it exhibits significant and dose-related antioedematogenic effects, according to "Antioedematogenic effect of marrubiin obtained from Marrubium vulgare" by Stulzer HK, Tagliari MP, Zampirolo JA, Cechinel-Filho V, Schlemper V.(12)

13. Etc.

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