Thursday, 31 October 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 9 Health Benefits of Polysulfides

Polysulfides are phytochemicals in a class of chemical compounds containing chains of sulfur atoms, belonging to the group of Organosulfides found abundantly in ioxidized product, including beer, wine, whiskey, garlic oil, etc.

Health Benefits
Colon cancer
In the searching new drugs with anticancer activities, by combining coumarins with polysulfides in the form of di-coumarin polysulfides, found that the novel coumarin compounds regulated the phosphatase activity of the cell cycle regulating cdc25 family members, indicating that these phosphatases are implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest and possibly in apoptosis induction as well. In addition, coumarin polysulfides also down-regulated the level of cdc25C, which also contributed to the arrest in the G(2)-phase of the cell cycle, according to "Coumarin polysulfides inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HCT116 colon cancer cells" by Saidu NE, Valente S, Bana E, Kirsch G, Bagrel D, Montenarh M.(1)

2. Anti cancers
In the determination of the influence of highly pure diallylsulfides with a chain of 1-4 sulphur atoms agents on cell viability, cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in HCT116 human colon cancer cells, found that the induction of apoptosis was indeed dependent on the redox-state of the cell, with anti-oxidants being able to prevent sulfide-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, using HCT116 cells which were either positive or negative for p53 revealed that p53 is clearly dispensable for induction of apoptosis. Growth arrest and induction of apoptosis is associated with a considerable reduction of the level of cdc25C, according to "Diallylpolysulfides induce growth arrest and apoptosis" by Busch C, Jacob C, Anwar A, Burkholz T, Aicha Ba L, Cerella C, Diederich M, Brandt W, Wessjohann L, Montenarh M.(2)

3. Harmful and beneficial effects of organic monosulfides, disulfides, and polysulfides
In the investigation of the harmful and Beneficial effects of many organic sulfides (mono-, di-, and polysulfides) presented in our environment, showed that Some sulfides are toxic, and there is evidence that such toxicity is caused by the ability of these substances to generate reactive oxygen species. Some sulfides, however, have been shown to protect against toxicants and carcinogens. These beneficial effects are believed to involve, at least in part, the ability of sulfides to inhibit the enzymatic activation of pro-toxicants and to increase tissue activities of enzymes that protect against electrophiles. Some sulfides also have potential as cancer chemotherapeutics, according to "Harmful and beneficial effects of organic monosulfides, disulfides, and polysulfides in animals and humans" by Munday R.(3)

4. Antiproliferative effect
In the determination of in vitro and in vivo studies reported that organosulfur compounds (OSCs), naturally found in Allium vegetables, are able to suppress the proliferation of various tumor cells, showed that Diallyl- and dipropyltetrasulfides have emerged as interesting irreversible inhibitors of the Cdc25 isoforms A and C in vitro. Furthermore, growth of both sensitive (MCF-7) and resistant (Vcr-R) human breast carcinoma cells was significantly decreased by these tetrasulfides. The observed antiproliferative effect appeared to be associated with a G2-M cell cycle arrest, according to 'Antiproliferative effect of natural tetrasulfides in human breast cancer cells is mediated through the inhibition of the cell division cycle 25 phosphatases" by Viry E, Anwar A, Kirsch G, Jacob C, Diederich M, Bagrel D.(4)

5. Cardiovascular diseases
found that stimulation of nitric oxide generation in endothelial cells seems to be the critical preventive mechanism. Garlic may promote an anti-inflammatory environment by cytokine modulation in human blood. Cardioprotective effects of dietary garlic are mediated in large part via the generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Garlic-derived organic polysulfides are converted by erythrocytes into hydrogen sulfide which relaxes vascular smooth muscle, induces vasodilation of blood vessels, and significantly reduces blood pressure, according to "Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and cardiovascular diseases" by Ginter E, Simko V.(5)

6. Liver cancer
In the investigation of the effect of allyl sulfides from garlic: monosulfide, disulfide and trisulfide on cell proliferation and viability, caspase 3 activity and hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) production in HepG2 cells, showed that Among the compounds under study, diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a sulfane sulfur-containing compound, showed the highest biological activity in HepG2 cells. This compound increased the H(2) O(2) formation, lowered the thiol level and produced the strongest inhibition of cell proliferation and the greatest induction of caspase 3 activity in HepG2 cells, according to "The effects of garlic-derived sulfur compounds on cell proliferation, caspase 3 activity, thiol levels and anaerobic sulfur metabolism in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells" by Iciek M, Kwiecień I, Chwatko G, Sokołowska-Jeżewicz M, Kowalczyk-Pachel D, Rokita H.(6)

7. Antibacterial effects
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy used in a study of the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic,
confirmed that organosulfur compounds are responsible for the substantial antimicrobial activity of garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spectral features of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides in the bacterial cell membranes, according to "Investigating antibacterial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy" by Lu X, Rasco BA, Jabal JM, Aston DE, Lin M, Konkel ME.(7)

8. Gastric cancer
In the determination of Allylmercapto glutathione S-conjugate, S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine (SAMC), biotransformed from allyl sulfides and from naturally occurring water-soluble garlic derivatives, for its inhibition of tumorigenesis, found that SAMC inhibited tumor growth rate by 31.36% and 37.78% at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Apoptosis in the implanted tumor cells was manifested by apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes of chromatin crescent, cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing. The apoptosis index of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of SAMC was 20.74 ± 2.50% and 30.61 ± 2.42%, respectively, by terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, according to "Anticancer activity of S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine on implanted tumor of human gastric cancer cell" by Lee Y, Kim H, Lee J, Kim K.(8)

9. Anti fungal activities
In the evaluation of the effect of diallyldisulphide (DADS), an important organosulphur compound found in garlic (Allium sativum), on antioxidant systems in Candida species, showed that a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities but an increase in catalase activity were observed. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of glutathione were observed in treated cells. Activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased significantly following DADS treatment and could be correlated with a decrease in glutathione concentration in both Candida species, according to "Effect of diallyldisulphide on an antioxidant enzyme system in Candida species" by Yousuf S, Ahmad A, Khan A, Manzoor N, Khan LA.(10)

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