Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - #Dang Qui (Angelica sinensis)

Dang Qui (Angelica sinensis) is a herb of Genus Angelica from the family Apiaceae, indigenous to China. The herb has been used as a Queen herb in traditional Chinese medicine antispasmodic and vasodilatory agent, and to balance the hormones in women for a normal menstrual cycle and menstruation and strengthen heart, spleen, kidneys, and liver for both men and women, etc. In other words, it is used to treat gynecological ailments, fatigue, mild anemia and high blood pressure. It has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Inflammatory effect
In the investigation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) and its anti-inflammatory effort found that AS EtOAc extract significantly inhibited NF-kappaB luciferase activity and TNF-alpha, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and NO secretions from LPS/IFN-gamma-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The AS1 and PDTC groups, but not AS2, had significantly higher survival rate than the control group. This was characterized by the inhibition of the serum TNF-alpha and IL-12p40 levels after LPS injection (p<0.05). The major compounds of AS, ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide, also significantly decreased NF-kappaB luciferase activity, which may contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of AS, according to "Inhibitory effects of Angelica sinensis ethyl acetate extract and major compounds on NF-kappaB trans-activation activity and LPS-induced inflammation" by Chao WW, Hong YH, Chen ML, Lin BF.(1)

2. Ischemia and Neurodegeneration
In the observation of 4 medical plants: astragali, ligusticum wallichii, angelica sinensis and carthamus tinctorius (saffron) have been the major medicines to treat ischemia for hundreds of years in China, Korea and Japan and theirs effects on Ischemia and Neurodegeneration found that The herbs have demonstrated the neuroprotective efficacy of the combination of these phyotmedicines on mitigating brain infarction and global ischemia as well as preventing the neurodegeneration following ischemia. Owing to their multi-function, including improving cerebral blood circulation, they therefore have the potential to alleviate the symptoms of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), according to the study of "Polyphenols and Neuroprotection against Ischemia and Neurodegeneration" by Lin B.(2)

2. Wound healing
In the study of proangiogenic phytochemicals are ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, beta-sitosterol from Aloe vera, calycosin from Radix Astragali, and extracts from Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Angelica sinensis. and theirs Proangiogenic activities found that since the anticancer and antiangiogenic properties of many phytomedicines have been amply reviewed elsewhere this paper will focus on the treatment of vascular insufficiency in wound healing. Globally accepted herbal drugs are thought to be safe and effective, according to "Proangiogenic activity of plant extracts in accelerating wound healing - a new face of old phytomedicines" by Majewska I, Gendaszewska-Darmach E.(3)

In the research of Xi xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) and Dong quai (Angelica sinensis)' Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SAFO) and its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects found that that SAFO significantly induced cytotoxicity, DNA strand breaks, micronuclei formation both in human cells in vitro and in mice. More studies are needed to explore the role SAFO plays in safrole-induced genotoxicity, according to "Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells and in mice" by Chiang SY, Lee PY, Lai MT, Shen LC, Chung WS, Huang HF, Wu KY, Wu HC.(4)

5. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity
In the evaluation of Angelica sinensis extract (AE), Sophora flavescens extract (SE), and herb pair A. sinensis and S. flavescens extract (HPE) and theirs antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity found that the anti-pimple and anti-eczema activities of Dangguikushen compound recipe are attributed to herb pairs, A. sinensis and S. flavescens, used in combination, according to the study of " Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Traditional Chinese Herb Pairs, Angelica sinensis and Sophora flavescens" by Han C, Guo J.(5)

6. Diabetes
In the determination of the role of BMP-7 in DangGui and it effects on diabetic rat found that after 1- or 4-week treatment, DangGui improved renal functions and increased renal BMP-7 expression in diabetic rats. The BMP-7 expression in RMCs( rat mesangial cells) was reduced by high glucose treatment and this could be reversed by DangGui. Moreover, RMCs exposed to high glucose were expired by BMP-7 RNAi transfection but those cells remained alive by scramble transfection, according to "Role of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins-7 (BMP-7) in the Renal Improvement Effect of DangGui (Angelica sinensis) in Type-1 Diabetic Rats" by Yeh CH, Chang CK, Cheng KC, Li YX, Zhang YW, Cheng JT.(6)

7. Cerebral infarction
In the demonstration of the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) and its effects on Cerebral infarction found that the herbs are effective in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores, according to "Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) on cerebral infarction" by Wu YC, Hsieh CL.(7)

8. Immunomodulatory functions
In the evaluation of Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) and their effects on immune system found that RG-CMH, which represents a mixture of rose geranium and extracts of G. tsugae, C. pilosula and A. sinensis, can improve the immune cell count of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to prevent leucopenia and immune impairment that usually occurs during cancer therapy. A total of fifty-eight breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled, according to "Effects of a Chinese medical herbs complex on cellular immunity and toxicity-related conditions of breast cancer patients' by Zhuang SR, Chiu HF, Chen SL, Tsai JH, Lee MY, Lee HS, Shen YC, Yan YY, Shane GT, Wang CK.(8)

9. Anti-tumor effects
In the study of the natural compound z-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis and its antitumor effects found that Bdph incorporated into a biodegradable polyanhydride material, p(CPP-SA) delivered a sufficient concentration of Bdph to the tumor site and effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the glioma, according to"Local interstitial delivery of z-butylidenephthalide by polymer wafers against malignant human gliomas" by Harn HJ, Lin SZ, Lin PC, Liu CY, Liu PY, Chang LF, Yen SY, Hsieh DK, Liu FC, Tai DF, Chiou TW.(9)

10. Dementia
In the demonstration of top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae and their potential benefit to dementia intervention found that 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom, according to the study of "Traditional chinese medicine for senile dementia" by Lin Z, Gu J, Xiu J, Mi T, Dong J, Tiwari JK.(10)

11. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
In the analyzing of Z-ligustilide (LIG), the primary lipophilic component of the Chinese traditional medicine radix Angelica sinensis and its potential neuroprotection after SAH found that , treatment with Z-ligustilide (LIG) reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the surrounding brain injury site, which accompanied a marked down-regulation of proapoptotic proteins, p53, and cleaved caspase-3. Our data suggest that LIG may be an effective therapeutic modality for SAH victims by altering apoptotic mechanisms, according to "Treatment with Z-ligustilide, a component of Angelica sinensis, reduces brain injury after a subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats" by Chen D, Tang J, Khatibi NH, Zhu M, Li Y, Wang C, Jiang R, Tu L, Wang S.(11)

12. Anticoagulative activities
In the study of 6β,9-dihydroxy-(+)-α-pinene (1) and 9-hydroxy-(+)-α-pinene-6β-O-D-glucoside (2) isolated from the aerial parts of Angelica sinensis found that In the anticoagulative assay, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak antithrombin activity and strong antiplatelet aggregation activity in vitro, according to "Two new α-pinene derivatives from Angelica sinensis and their anticoagulative activities" by Yang NY, Zhou GS, Tang YP, Yan H, Guo S, Liu P, Duan JA, Song BS, He ZQ.(12)

13. Hypertension
In the investigation of Z-ligustilide, the main lipophilic component of the essential oil of Danggui on aortic tension induced by phenylephrine of Radix Angelica sinensis, and its anti-hypertensive effect found that ligustilide can significantly reduce the phenylephrine-induced aortic tension in vitro with IC(50) about 64 mug/ml, but has no in vivo effect on systolic blood pressure in SHR rats when administrated orally. The data on transport of ligustilide across Caco-2 monolayer suggested an efficient intestinal absorption of ligustilide in vivo, implying that the non-effectiveness of ligustilide in vivo is not due to the poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, according to "Ligustilide reduces phenylephrine induced-aortic tension in vitro but has no effect on systolic pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats" by Du JR, Yu Y, Yao Y, Bai B, Zong X, Lei Y, Wang CY, Qian ZM.(13)

14. Etc.

Side effects
1. Over doses may cause gastrointestinal discomforts such as stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, etc.
2. Dang Qui nay cause allergic effects, so always start with a small dose
3. Do not use the herb ib children or if you are pregnant or breasting with out consulting with related field specialist.
4. Etc.

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