Wednesday, 30 October 2013

#Obesity and Varicose Vein

A. Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

B. How to calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

C. Varicose Vein
is defined as a condition of enlarged and tortuous veins appearing blue and purple squiggly just under the skin. It can lead to blood flowing backwards, causing pain in standing or walking.

D. How Obesity associates with Varicose Vein
1. According to the study of "
Associations of moderate and severe overweight with self-reported illness and medical care in Dutch adults" by Seidell JC, de Groot LC, van Sonsbeek JL, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JG., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that In men, severe overweight was associated with hypertension, especially in men under 50 years of age. In women, severe overweight was associated with hypertension, diabetes, varicose veins, asthma/bronchitis, and hemorrhoids. Increased utilization of medical care and medications were also associated with severe overweight. For moderately overweight subjects, these associations were less clear or absent.

2. In a study of "Epidemiology and risk factors for varicose veins among older people: cross-sectional population study in the UK" by Clark A, Harvey I, Fowkes FG., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Trunk varices occur very commonly in older age groups with increasing age, obesity and possibly female sex as risk factors. Associations found with DVT and hypertension were based on history alone and must be interpreted with caution.

3. According to the abstract of "The risk of congestive heart failure is increased in persons with varicose veins" by Mäkivaara LA, Ahti TM, Luukkaala T, Hakama M, Laurikka JO., posted in PubMed, researchers filed the result that Marginally higher prevalence of CHF was found in persons with varicose veins than in those without (2.9% vs. 1.9%) with OR 1.6 (1.0-2.3) and sex and age adjusted OR 1.2 (0.8-1.9). The incidence of CHF was higher in subjects with varicose veins than in others (4.9 vs. 2.6 per 1000 person-years) with IDR 1.9 (1.1-2.9) and sex and age adjusted IOR 2.5 (1.4-4.6). The result was further adjusted for body mass index, arterial disease and hypertension; multi-adjusted IOR for the incidence of CHF by varicose veins was 2.1 (1.1-4.0).

4. In the study of "Incidence of varicose veins in Finland" byMäkivaara LA, Jukkola TM, Sisto T, Luukkaala T, Hakama M, Laurikka JO., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that 157 individuals reported new varicose veins during the follow-up. The overall incidence was 13.5 per 1000 person years (8.5 for men and 19.2 for women). Female sex was an independent and statistically significant risk indicator of varicose veins (adjusted odds ratio, OR 2.4). The incidence was significantly higher at the age of 50-55 years (OR 1.6). Higher body mass index seemed to be related to higher risk of new varicose veins (OR 1.2-1.8), but the association failed to reach statistical significance. The level of education did not affect the incidence.

5. In the observation during a five-year follow-up period were studied of the study of "The risk of congestive heart failure is increased in persons with varicose veins" by Mäkivaara LA, Ahti TM, Luukkaala T, Hakama M, Laurikka JO., posted in Pubmed, researchers filed the conclusion that Our longitudinal observation is consistent with the hypothesis that persons with varicose veins have a higher risk of CHF which is not mediated through sex, age, overweight, arterial disease or hypertension.

6. Etc.

E. Treatments of Obesity and Varicose Vein
1. In the abstract of " [Varicose vein surgery and obesity--experience with a new Boazul cuff in leg circumference up to 90 cm]",[Article in German], by Hermanns HJ., posted in PubMed, researcher found that The use of the bloodless limb technique for varicose vein surgery is very comfortable, especially in cases of severe varicose veins and obesity. Maintenance of operation standards and utmost care of the cuffs lead to the successful use of this procedure.

2. According to the study of "Using the Boazul cuff to reduce blood loss in varicose vein surgery" by Robinson J, Macierewicz J, Beard JD., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that use of the Boazul cuff significantly decreases the blood loss from the avulsion sites during routine varicose vein surgery, and may encourage the surgeon to perform more avulsions.

3. Etc.

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