Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Obesity and Hyperlipidemia ( High Levels of Cholesterol and Triglycerides)

A. Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

B. How to calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

C. Hyperlipidemia
is defined as a condition of High Levels of Cholesterol and Triglycerides of that can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.

D. How Obesity associates with Hyperlipidemia ( High Levels of Cholesterol and Triglycerides)
1. According to the abstract of "Influence of having a male twin on body mass index and risk for dyslipidemia in middle-aged and old women" by C Alexanderson, S Henningsson, P Lichtenstein, A Holmäng and E Eriksson, posted in International Journal of Obesity, researchers concluded that The results support the notion that comparisons of women with a twin brother with women from same-sexed twin pairs may be used to shed light on possible long-term effects of interindividual variations in early androgen exposure, and (ii) suggest that the effects of early androgen exposure on metabolism previously observed in animal experiments are of relevance also for humans.

2. In the abstract of the study of "Plasma sterol evidence for decreased absorption and increased synthesis of cholesterol in insulin resistance and obesity" by Paramsothy P, Knopp RH, Kahn SE, Retzlaff BM, Fish B, Ma L, Ostlund RE Jr., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Cholesterol absorption was highest in the LIS participants, whereas cholesterol synthesis was highest in the LIR and OIR participants. Therapeutic diets for hyperlipidemia should emphasize low-cholesterol diets in LIS persons and weight loss to improve S(I) and to decrease cholesterol overproduction in LIR and OIR persons.

3. According to the study of "Obesity and dyslipidemia" by Repas T., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote in abstract that Dyslipidemia is frequently found in association with obesity. Obesity-related dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated triglycerides, elevated VLDL, increased apo-B, decreased HDL cholesterol and increased small dense LDL particles. This combination of lipid abnormalities is particularly atherogenic and, along with related comorbidities, explains the increased cardiovascular risk seen in obesity. Weight loss, through diet, medication and/or surgery all result in beneficial effects upon serum lipids. Dietary modification and lifestyle change are essential components in the management of obesity-related dyslipidemia. Many patients, however, require pharmacotherapy to achieve lipid goals.

4. In the study of "Prevalences of overweight, obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in the Gulf: systematic review" by Alhyas L, McKay A, Balasanthiran A, Majeed A., posted in PubMed, researchers found that there are high prevalences of risk factors for diabetes and diabetic complications in the GCC region, indicative that their current management is suboptimal. Enhanced management will be critical if escalation of diabetes-related problems is to be averted as industrialization, urbanization and changing population demographics continue.

5. In the abstract of "The relative risks of hyperglycaemia, obesity and dyslipidaemia in the relatives of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus" by Shaw JT, Purdie DM, Neil HA, Levy JC, Turner RC., posted in PubMed, researchers found that the relatives were significantly more obese, had higher fasting plasma insulin concentrations and had lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, there is a strong familial aggregation of hyperglycaemia and obesity in the relatives of subjects with Type II diabetes and these subjects have higher fasting plasma insulin concentrations and lower HDL-cholesterol than the general population. These data indicate the particular relevance of screening the first degree relatives of subjects with Type II diabetes, as intervention strategies which aim to improve the metabolic profile are indicated for a large proportion of these subjects.

6. Etc.

E. Treatments of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia
1. According to the study of "Caloric restriction, aerobic exercise training and soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 levels in overweight and obese post-menopausal women" by T E Brinkley, X Wang, N Kume, H Mitsuoka and B J Nicklas, posted in International Journals of Obesity, researchers wrote that Weight loss interventions of equal energy deficit have similar effects on sLOX-1 levels in overweight and obese post-menopausal women, with the addition of aerobic exercise having no added benefit when performed in conjunction with CR.

2. In the abstract of the study of "Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome" by Charlton M., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that in 4. It is rare for dietary changes and weight reduction to result in normalization of the lipid profile. Statins should thus be initiated early in the course of management of post-LT dyslipidemia. Forty milligrams of simvastatin per day, 40 mg of atorvastatin per day, and 20 mg of pravastatin per day are reasonable starting doses for post-LT hypercholesterolemia. It is important to remember that the effects of statin therapy are additive to those of a controlled diet (eg, a Mediterranean diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber).

3. According to the study of "Group 1B phospholipase A2 deficiency protects against diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice" by Hollie NI, Hui DY., posted in PubMed, researchers found that in addition to dietary fatty acids, gut-derived lysophospholipids derived from Pla2g1b hydrolysis of dietary and biliary phospholipids also promote hepatic VLDL production. Thus, the inhibition of lysophospholipid absorption via Pla2g1b inactivation may prove beneficial against diet-induced hyperlipidemia in addition to the protection against obesity and diabetes.

4. Etc.

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