Monday, 10 September 2018

Strawberry and It's Bioactive Flavonoids That Eradicate Risk Factors of Heart Disease

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a fruit which has a potential effect in reduced risk and treatment of heart disease, some studies suggested.

According to statistic, heart disease, after lung cancer kills more than 2,000 Americans every day.

Approximately, 60 million Americans have heart disease.

There are many causes of heart diseases.

Most of the heart diseases are caused by high blood pressure which contributes to hardening of the arteries.

Some researchers suggested that diet high in saturated and trans fats also plays an important role in the initiated risk of coronary heart disease. As the long-term unhealthy diet can cause obesity, high blood pressure,... and diabetes.

Dr. McNamara DJ, in the study of dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance, wrote, "....dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL: HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk"(4).

Truly, everything that adds to the formation of atherosclerosis lesions, damages the inner lining of blood vessels and impedes the transportation of oxygen and nutrition to the heart, is considered prevalent risk factors of arterial blockage, the main cause of heart disease.

Strawberry is a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongings to the family Roseaceae.

The edible plants have been grown all over the world with a suitable climate for commercial profits due to their's health benefits.

 Chemicals constituents of strawberry
The major chemical compounds include anthocyanin and ellagitannins and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin.

According to the followed up study to examine the relationship between anthocyanins, the largest group of water-soluble pigments and the risk of MI, anthocyanin, strawberries intake was found to be potential in preventing myocardial infarction (MI) in young and middle-aged women.

Intake of strawberries was also associated with a decreased risk of MI, in a comparison of those consuming >3 servings a week and those with lower intake.

Dr. Cassidy A, the lead scientist, in the study conducted by the University of East Anglia, including a total of 93 600 women 25 to 42 years of age from the database of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II, after taking into account of multivariate adjustment said, "An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.96; P=0.03, highest versus lowest quintiles)".

Further differentiation of the effects of anthocyanins in reduced risk of a heart problem, also found that anthocyanins efficacy may be associated to improve a variety of effects on blood vessels, platelets, and lipoproteins, the coronary heart diseases reducers.

Moreover, the study of participants includes 34 489 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study who were free of CVD and had complete food-frequency questionnaire information  that include Intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses categorized into quintiles at baseline, using the proportional hazards rate ratios (RR) to compute for CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and total mortality after 16 y of follow-up, showed,

* There was a significant inverse association between anthocyanidins and CHD, CVD, and total mortality in compared to no intake of proportional hazards rate ratios (RR) of 0.88, 0.91, and 0.90, respectively.

* The proportional hazards rate ratios (RR) between flavanones and CHD [RR for highest quintile versus lowest 0.78 and between flavones and total mortality [RR for highest quintile versus lowest: 0.88.

* Intake of strawberry were associated with significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases in compared to other foods in the questionnaire.

These results suggested that dietary intakes of flavanones, anthocyanidins, and foods rich in flavonoids were associated with reduced risk of death due to CHD, CVD, and all causes, according to Dr. Mink PJ, the lead scientist.

Taken altogether, strawberry with rich of flavanones, anthocyanidins, and flavonoids may be considered as a functional food in the prevention of early onset and treatment of heart disease.

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(1) High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women by Cassidy A, Mukamal KJ, Liu L, Franz M, Eliassen AH, Rimm EB..(PubMed)
(2) Anthocyanins and heart health by Mazza GJ. (PubMed)
(3) Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. byMink PJ, Scrafford CG, Barraj LM, Harnack L, Hong CP, Nettleton JA, Jacobs DR Jr.(PubMed)
(4) Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance by McNamara DJ(PubMed)

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