Papaya extract may be the next potential pharmacological target to identify the ingredients for treatment of cancers, some scientists suggested(2).
Cancer is a class of chronic diseases, characterized by cell growth uncontrollably and disorderly.
Some cancers are slow growing and some are very invasive. However, at the advanced state, most cancers can travel a distance away from the original site to infect other healthy organs and tissue.
According to the World center fund International, in 2012, there were 14.1 million cancer cases, affecting 7.4 million in men and 6.7 million in women. This number is expected to increase to 24 million by 2035(3).
Most common types of cancer include non-melanoma skin cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer and melanoma.
The Canadian Cancer Society statistic, an estimated 206,200 new cases of cancer and 80,800 deaths from cancer occurred in Canada in 2017. (The number of estimated new cases does not include non-melanoma skin cancer cases.).
The fruit has been used in traditional medicine as remedies for many various ailments, including gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer.
Nutrients of papaya include Vitamin A, Thiamine (Vitamin B1), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacin (Vitamin B3), Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, etc. and major chemical constituent and ethanol extract including benzylisothiocyanate are said to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, hyperlipidemic, anti cellular oxidative stress, anti neural tube defect, etc. effects(1).
The University of Tokyo, in the study to examine the effect of aqueous-extracted CP leaf fraction on the growth of various tumor cell lines and on the anti-tumor effect of human lymphocytes, application of the extract inhibit significant growth activity, through immunomodulatory effects through stimutulated natural production of interleukin 12 (also known as natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2) which plays an essential role in blocking pathogens and to transplantable and chemical substances that cause tumors(4).
Interestingly, researchers found that CP extract inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and IL-4 without affecting IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha function.
These results suggested Carica papaya leaf extract can mediate a Th1 type shift in human immune system activated interleukin-12 (IL-12), making IL-12 the potential to act as anti-inflammatory cytokine during secondary responses in the site that alternated healthy cell DNA.
Truly, application of papaya peel extract (PapPE), also demonstrated that the efficacy not only controls blood glucose, excessive inflammation, but also modulates free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics(6).
In cultured human lung cancer H69 cell, researchers showed that benzyl glucosinolate (BG) found in the pulp and the seed of papaya, inhibited cancer cell proliferation in an administration of doses of 6.5 μmol(7), probably through its effect in superoxide generation and apoptosis induction(8).
Benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), another chemical constituent also mediated apoptosis of prostate and pancreases cancer cells through activation both procaspase-8 pathways(initiation of apoptosis) and cell cycle arrest(9), inhibited advanced ovarian cancer cell lines through activation of caspase-3(activation in the apoptotic cell) and -9(activation of apoptotic process), and cleavage of PARP-1(repair of DNA damage)(10) and breast cancer through generation of reactive oxygen species and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3(11).
Dr/ Nguyen and the research team at The University of Queensland told PubMed "(The) extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasize the aspects (of papaya) that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities"(2).
Taken altogether, fermented papaya and it major chemical constituents such as Benzyl glucosinolate (BG) and Benzylisothiocyanate (BITC) may be effective in reduced risk and treatment for certain types of cancer, through cell cycle arrest and unregulated apoptotic pathways but further studies with large sample size and multi-centers are necessary to identify the main ingredients in comparison of currently pharmacological medicine use to improve its validation.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) #Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Papaya (Carica Papaya)(Better living and living health)
(2) Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review by Nguyen TT1, Shaw PN, Parat MO, Hewavitharana AK.(PubMed)
(3) Cancer statistics Worldwide(World center fund International)
(4) Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects by Otsuki N, Dang NH, Kumagai E, Kondo A, Iwata S, Morimoto C.(PubMed)
(5) Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer by Aruoma OI, Somanah J, Bourdon E, Rondeau P, Bahorun T(PubMed)
(6) Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts by Waly MI, Al-Rawahi AS, Al Riyami M, Al-Kindi MA, Al-Issaei HK, Farooq SA, Al-Alawi A, Rahman MS.(PubMed)
(7) Content determination of benzyl glucosinolate and anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L, by Li ZY1, Wang Y, Shen WT, Zhou P.(PubMed)
(8) Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate by Nakamura Y, Yoshimoto M, Murata Y, Shimoishi Y, Asai Y, Park EY, Sato K, Nakamura Y.(PubMed)
(9) Dietary isothiocyanate mediated apoptosis of human cancer cells is associated with Bcl-xL phosphorylation by Basu A, Haldar S.(PubMed)
(10) Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) induces apoptosis in ovarian cancercells in vitro by Kalkunte S, Swamy N, Dizon DS, Brard L(PubMed)
(11) Benzyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells is initiated by reactive oxygen species and regulated by Bax and Bak by Xiao D1, Vogel V, Singh SV.(PubMed)
(12) Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities by Mawa S, Husain K, Jantan I.(PubMed)