Sex hormones are a class of hormones, affecting sexual development or reproduction.
According to the University of Western Ontario, in differentiation of steroid-binding globulin(SSBG) wrote, "The access of testosterone and estradiol to target tissues is regulated by sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) in human blood" and "Serum SHBG levels are low in patients with hyperandrogenism, especially in association with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and in individuals at risk for diabetes and heart disease".
Furthermore, Patients wit, idiopathic hirsutism, or ovarian failure are also associated with low levels of Steroid-binding globulin(SSBG), Dr. Hogeveen KN, the lead author said.
Moreover, reduced circulating testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in an aging population are also implicated as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, probably due to its relationship with insulin sensitivity.
Coffee, a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.
In an 8-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial with Healthy adults (n = 42) recruited from the Boston community, including regular coffee consumers, nonsmokers, and overweight, randomized to five 6-ounce cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee or water per day, at 4 weeks, researchers surprisingly found that
* Decaffeinated coffee drinking was associated with a borderline significantly increased levels of SHBG in women, but not in men.
* At week 4, decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone and caffeinated coffee decreased only total testosterone in women.
* Contrasted to women participants, men consumption of caffeinated coffee displayed a significantly increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol hormones.
* The study also indicated that caffeinated coffee consumption does not exert any effect on SHBG in either men or women.
But conflicted to the healthy young adult, coffee and coffee caffeine showed an elevated effect as a mediator of sex hormone-binding globulin in both androgen and estrogen in type 2 diabetic patients, particularly in women.
Additionally, according to the cross-sectional study of 2377 nondiabetic pre- and postmenopausal women from the E3N cohort study in a multivariate-adjusted model, intake of more than 3 cups of coffee daily coffee and caffeine ≥265 mg/day were associated with an increased SHBG level distribution (<46.3 nmol/L), in compared to no risk association of decaffeinated coffee subgroup.
Moreover, the prevention of low level of SHBG of both caffeinated coffee and caffeine may demonstrate a potential and positive effect in reduced risk of T2DM.
More importantly, in the examine a study during a median follow-up of 10 years of 359 postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes matched with 359 control subjects by age, race, duration of follow-up, and time of blood draw, coffee and caffeine were associated to increased levels of fee and total testosterone among postmenopausal women.
The findings suggested that coffee and caffeine has an extreme effect in the exhibition of the sex hormone estrogen and testosterone throughthe lower level of SHBG in menopause women and prevented onset of type 2 diabetes.
Decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone through significantly increased levels of SHBG in women. And caffeinated coffee displayed a significantly increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol in men.
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Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.Sources
(1) The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial by Wedick NM1, Mantzoros CS, Ding EL, Brennan AM, Rosner B, Rimm EB, Hu FB, van Dam RM.(PubMed)
(2) Cross-sectional association of coffee and caffeine consumption with sex hormone-binding globulin in healthy nondiabetic women by Pihan-Le Bars F1,2, Gusto G3,4,5, Boutron-Ruault MC3,4,5, Fagherazzi G3,4,5, Bonnet F1,2,3.(PubMed)
(3) Coffee and caffeine consumption in relation to sex hormone-binding globulin and risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women by Goto A1, Song Y, Chen BH, Manson JE, Buring JE, Liu S.(PubMed)