Monday, 24 September 2018

Infectious Diseases: Herbal Fennel, The Natural Alternative to Antibiotics With No Side Effects

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Fennel may be the next natural antibiotics used for treatment of diseases caused bacterial infection with no side effects, some researchers suggested.

Although most micro bacteria are harmless, some are pathogenic.

Most common bacterial pathogens that cause human diseases are Staphylococcus aureus and group A β-hemolytic streptococci.

According to statistic provided by the World Health organization, approximately, 50,000 men, women and children are dying from infectious diseases every day world wide.

Some researchers suggested that over span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health, including a reduction in mortality and creation of larger and older populations in which the main causes of illness are chronic infectious diseases.

Although, in comparison to the third world, the prevalence of infectious diseases in the UK has reduced dramatically over the last century, the rate of infectious diseases caused by pathogen still have a strong and negative impact in major health, social and economic issues.

Each year in UK, infectious diseases was found to cause 576 of days lost due to disability, out of 1000 population, according to statistic reported by Somerset Intelligence.

Most common symptoms of infectious diseases include fever, diarrhea, fatigue, tiredness, muscle aches,..... coughing. However, signs and symptoms may vary, depending on the pathogen, causing the infection.

Fennel is a species of Foeniculum Vulgare, belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to the shores of the Mediterranean. It is now widely cultivated all around the globe to use as food and herb.

1. Carbohydrates
2. Fiber
3. Protein
4. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
5. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
6. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
7. Pantothenic acid (B5)
8. Vitamin B6
9. Folate (Vitamin B9)
10. Vitamin C
11. Calcium
12. Copper
13. Iron
14. Magnesium
15. Molybdenum
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Zinc

Chemical constituents(1)(2)
1. 1,3-benzenediol
2. 1-methoxycyclohexene
3. O-cymene
4. Sorbic acid,
5. 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one
6. Estragole
7. Limonene-10-ol
8. 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one
9. Linoleic acid
10. Oleic acid
11. Undecanal
12. 2,4-undecadienal
13. trans-Anethole
14. Fenchone
15. Limonene

In the study to examine 3 different essential oils from grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel, researchers found that according to chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, all chemical compounds isolated from 3 essential oil processing a strong antioxidant activity in inhibited pathogenic bacteria including two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria.

Further analysis also suggested that the efficacy of compounds isolated from essential oil from 3 species of fennel was attributed to its free radical scavenging, anti lipid peroxidation and metal chelating properties.

Additionally, in the observation of essential oils antioxidant activity from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits isolated by hydrodistillation, researchers at the Universidade do Algarve conducted an experiment, using different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS in isolated chemical compounds from obtained fennel essential oil.

According to the analysis of the agar diffusion method. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%), the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, and exerted a significant anti bacterial activity compared to methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) dominant in the fruit oils.

In DPPH method, according to measurement of  oxidative stress, plant essential oils showed better antioxidant activity compared to the fruits oils.

Dr, Miguel MG, the lead author wrote at the end of the experimental report, "None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h".

These results suggested that the effect of chemical compounds in inhibited pathogenic bacteria is isolated time dependable. Only those isolated less than 2 hours are process strong anti bacterial capability.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299

(1) Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Esquivel-Ferriño PC1, Favela-Hernández JM, Garza-González E, Waksman N, Ríos MY, del Rayo Camacho-Corona M.(PubMed)
(2) Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars by Shahat AA1, Ibrahim AY, Hendawy SF, Omer EA, Hammouda FM, Abdel-Rahman FH, Saleh MA.(PubMed)
(3) Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities by Miguel MG1, Cruz C, Faleiro L, Simões MT, Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG.(PubMed)

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