Wednesday, 26 September 2018

Carrots May Stop Colon Cancer Cells From Spreading, Scientists Say

Kyle J. Norton

Carrots may have a profound and substantial effect on blocking colon cancer cells from spreading, some scientists suggested.

Colon cancer, the third most common type of cancer in the United States, is a condition characterized by cell growth disorderly and uncontrollably in colon tissue. At the later stage, the cancerous cells may infect other healthy tissue and organs a distance away from the original site.

According to statistics provided by the American cancer society, in the US, 135,430 new cases colon cancers were diagnosed and 50,260 patient died from colon and rectal cancers in 2017.

Sadly. 1 in 22 men and 1 in 24 women will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in their lifetime.

The exact causes of colon cancer are unknown, some researchers suggested that increasing age, African-American race, high fat intake, a family history of colorectal cancer, patients with polyps in the large intestine, and inflammatory bowel diseases, and chronic ulcerative colitis are associated to increase risk of the disease onset.

Besides the common cancers symptoms, patients with colon cancer may also experience, a change in  bowel habits, that lasts longer than 3 weeks, persistent rectal bleeding or blood in your stool,... and abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain.

Dr. O'Neill AM, the lead scientist in concern of Western diet in risk of colon cancer, wrote in his vitro, "Human colon cancer growth is accelerated in animals that are obese and insulin resistant due to the consumption of an high-fat Western diet (HFWD)"(4).

Carrot, a root vegetable with orange color is  a sub spices of Daucus carota, belongings to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

In an aim to evaluate the effect of carrot intake and risk of colon cancer, researchers at the Technical University of Munich conducted a randomized cross-over trial of twenty-two healthy young men on a low-carotenoid diet consumed 330 ml tomato or carrotjuice per day for 2 weeks with intervention periods preceded by 2-week depletion phases.

At the end of the experiment,  researchers found that increased marks of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene were found in the collected feces

Further analysis of fecal water, researchers indicated that intake of tomato and carrot juice demonstrates a huge activity in induction of cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29) in high dose-dependent manner without alternating the bile acid concentrations, activities of the bacterial enzymes beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase.

Moreover, intake of tomato and carrot juice also decreased fecal water pH, another indication of anti colon activity that was attributed to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration with function in regulated cecal and colonic metabolism and modulated histone acetylation in human HT29 colon cancer cells.

After taking into account of other con founders, Dr. Schnäbele K, the lead author said, "2-week interventions with carotenoid-rich juices led only to minor changes in investigated luminal biomarkers relevant to colon carcinogenesis".

Additionally, in the reaffirmation of wild carrot used in folk medicine throughout the world for anticancer and antioxidant activities, researchers at the joint study lead by the University of Surrey conducted an experiment to evaluate the effect of pentane fraction (F1) and the 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) of the Daucus Carota oil extract (DCOE) in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2).

The results of the study suggested that application of the extract F1 and F2 exerts a profound effect in inhibition of colon cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner.

According to the Flow cytometric analysis, both fractions ameliorated colon cells expression through significantly induced sub-G1 phase accumulation and increased apoptotic cell death. 

In the Western blot assay, researchers found that application of F1 and F2 also reduces cancer cell proliferation through activation of caspase-3 which is considered as a 'death-switch' in colorectal cancer cells.

Administration of F1 and F2 also increased expression of Bax in penetration of the cancer mitochondrial outer membrane to mediate cell death by apoptosis. and p53 with function in exhibited cancer cell growth arrest and inhibited cancer cells proliferation.

The fractions also decreased levels of Bcl-2 in inhibited PARP cleavage activity in facilitation of colon cancer cell apoptosis.

 This implication suggested that F1 or F2 inhibited colon cancer cells through ameliorated expression of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway which has the function to act as a key mediator of cell metabolism and cell growth at different levels. 

More importantly, injection of DCOE fractions (F1 and F2) also attenuated cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 cells.

The findings strongly suggested that carrot can be considered as a function food in prevention and treatment of colon cancer. But Intake of carrot supplement should be taken with care to prevent acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299

(1) Daucus carota Pentane-Based Fractions Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells by Inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K Pathways by Shebaby WN1, Bodman-Smith KB1, Mansour A2, Mroueh M3, Taleb RI4, El-Sibai M4, Daher CF(PubMed)
(2) Effects of carrot and tomato juice consumption on faecal markers relevant to colon carcinogenesis in humans by Schnäbele K1, Briviba K, Bub A, Roser S, Pool-Zobel BL, Rechkemmer G(PubMed)
(3) Inhibitory effects of feeding with carrots or (-)-falcarinol on development of azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon by Kobaek-Larsen M1, Christensen LP, Vach W, Ritskes-Hoitinga J, Brandt K(PubMed)
(4) High-fat Western diet-induced obesity contributes to increased tumor growth in mouse models of human colon cancer by O'Neill AM1, Burrington CM2, Gillaspie EA3, Lynch DT2, Horsman MJ2, Greene MW(PubMed)

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