Monday, 24 September 2018

Strawberries, The Healthy Fruit Which Protects Cell Membranes Integrity Against Lipid Peroxidation in Induction of Chronic Syndromes and Diseases, Researchers Reveal

Kyle J. Norton (Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Strawberries may be the next natural whole used as inhibitor for treatment of  syndromes and diseases caused by over expression of lipid peroxidation, the process which free radical steal molecules from the lipids of the cell membranes to induce cells damage.

Lipid peroxidation occurred naturally in small amount in the body. In healthy individual, the process generated by ROS is neutralized by antioxidants produced in the host tissue.

However, over expression of lipid peroxidant can cause imbalance of the ratio of free radicals and antioxidants, weakening the antioxidant enzyme in induction of oxidative stress, a leading cause of numbers of chronic diseases, including diabetes,.... and cardiovascular disease.

More precisely, over expression of free radicals is characterized by inflammation or cell injury hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), markers of disease involving oxidative stress of low density lipoproteinomes (LDL) at 10-100 higher concentration in compared to LDL from healthy individuals.

Epidemiological studies also found that the effect of selected dietary factors plays an essential role of lipids in induction of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses. Increase intake of antioxidant vitamins C (ascorbic acid) and E (alpha tocopherol) and the type of fatty acids (mono- and poly-unsaturated) may have a strong implication in reduced over expression of lipid peroxidation.

Truly, lipid peroxidant is a double edge sword, on one hand, under normal condition, it exerts physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival.  And on the other hand, in the over expression environment, the process plays a cytotoxic role in inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death.

Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood.

The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place.

If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL, overtime over expression of lipid peroxidation can cause cholesterol  building up in your arterial walls, leading to  arterial blockage induction of heart attack and stroke.

Strawberries is a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongs to the family Roseaceae., grown all over the world with suitable climate for commercial profits and for health benefits.

Nutrients and Chemicals constituents
1. Carbohydrate
2. Dietary fiber
3. Omega 3 fatty acid
4. Calcium
5. Iron
6. Magnesium
7. Phosphorus
8. Potassium
9. Sodium
10. Zinc
11. Copper
12. Manganese
13. Selenium
14. Vitamin C
15. Thiamin
16. Niacin
17. Pantothenic acid
18. Vitamin B-6
19. Folate
20. Vitamin B-12
21. Vitamin A
22. Vitamin E
23. Vitamin K
24. Etc.
The major chemical compounds include anthocyanin and ellagitannins and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin.

According to the study by the Università Politecnica delle Marche, stawberry processes high content of essential nutrients and beneficial phytochemicals, such as major antioxidants anthocyanin and ellagitannins which has been found to inhibit ROS in initiation of cytotoxic attack of the cell membrane, a leading cause of lipid peroxidants.

Highest concentrations of anthocyanins were found from ripe strawberry in compared to unripe one.

Furthermore, the study of strawberry flavonoids in extertion of potent antioxidants and anti-inflammatory activity, researchers conducted a test of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FSP) properties of lowering fasting lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation at four weeks in compared to baseline.

In the total of 16 female enrolled in the study, 3 features of metabolic syndrome with waist circumference >35 inches, triglycerides > 150 mg/dL, fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL and < 126 mg/dL, HDL <50 mg/dL, or blood pressure >130/85 mm Hg).

Participants were given two cups of the strawberry drink daily for four weeks with each cup had 25 g FSP blended in water. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured using ELISA techniques. Plasma ellagic acid was measured using HPLC-UV techniques.

At the end of the study, researchers found that
* Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower at 4 weeks versus baseline (-5% and -6%, respectively, p < 0.05),

* Lipid peroxidation in the form of malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal (-14%, p < 0.01) was also lower significantly.

* Interestingly, Oxidized-LDL showed a decreasing trend at 4 weeks

These results suggested that short-term supplementation of freeze-dried strawberries exert hypocholesterolemic effects and decrease lipid peroxidation in women with metabolic syndrome.

Moreover, in the examine the effects of strawberry major phytochemicals on the radicals DPPH and OH with doese ofrom 50-100 μl extract in vitro, researchers showed that
* Injection of strawberry deceases activity of lipid peroxidation (LPO) through intercepted levels of level of Malondialdehyde (MDA)-2-thiobarbituric acid in compared to baseline.

* Administration of strawberry extract, depending on the decrease in LPO formation, also preserved amounts of other antioxidants such as oleic acid and linoleic acid.

Dr. Ozsahin AD, the lead author at the Bitlis Eren University, after taking into accounts of other co and con founders, said, "Consequently, it has been confirmed that the strawberry fruit that has a scavenging effect against the radicals prevents that lipid peroxidation in in vitro environment"..

DPPH is an organic chemical compound 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl composed of stable free-radical molecules, 

The findings strongly suggested that strawberries processed numbers of antioxidants may be used as functional food in inhibited free radicals over expression causes of lipid peroxidants, a leading cause of chronic syndromes and diseases.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299
(1) The strawberry: composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. by Giampieri F, Tulipani S, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M.(PubMed)
(2) Freeze-dried strawberry powder improves lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in women with metabolic syndrome: baseline and post intervention effects. by Basu A, Wilkinson M, Penugonda K, Simmons B, Betts NM, Lyons TJ.(PubMed)
(3) The fruit extract of three strawberry cultivars prevents lipid peroxidationand protects the unsaturated fatty acids in the Fenton reagent environment. by Ozsahin AD, Gokce Z, Yilmaz O, Kirecci OA.(PubMed)

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